Tấm vải liệm Turin và trò chơi khăm của Leonardo da Vinci


Sau 500 năm mất đi, Leonardo vẫn có thể chơi khăm giới khoa học hiện đại ngày nay bằng một cách thức không ai nghĩ đến. Bức chân dung người đàn ông in trên tấm vải liệm thành Turin đang được các nhà khoa học nghiên cứu có thể đó chỉ là một tấm ảnh “tự sướng” của nhà phát minh đại tài này.

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Tấm vải liệm Turin là một miếng vải lanh có in hình ảnh một người đàn ông, dường như có những vết thương phù hợp với những gì mô tả trong Kinh thánh về Chúa Giêsu Kitô trong ngày bị đóng đinh và chôn cất. Bức ảnh âm bản đầu tiên được công chúng biết đến vào năm 1898 do nhiếp ảnh gia nghiệp dư Second Pia, người được phép chụp ảnh nó trong nhà trưng bày tại nhà thờ Turin.

Nguồn gốc của tấm vải liệm là chủ đề của cuộc tranh luận gay gắt giữa các nhà khoa học, nhà thần học, nhà sử học và các nhà nghiên cứu. Các ấn phẩm khoa học và phổ thông đã trình bày các lập luận đa dạng cho cả tính xác thực và “nghi án” giả mạo. Ở một khía cạnh khác, một số nhà khoa học đã có một lập luận khá thú vị về tấm vải liệm này. Chúng ta cùng xem xét giả thuyết mới qua bài phân tích dưới đây:

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Âm bản chụp từ tấm vải liệm được làm rõ nét với độ tương phản cao

Các bất thường từ tấm vải liệm:

  • Nếu đây là dấu vết còn lại của Chúa Giêsu in trên tấm vải liệm thì có vẻ như hình ảnh thu được quá lớn so với thực tế: 2,07 m phía trước và 1,85m phía sau.
  • Đầu quá nhỏ so với cơ thể.
  • Khuôn mặt dài không tự nhiên, trán và hai thái dương, tai bị mất.
  • Tay phải, bàn tay quá dài.
  • Đốm sáng tròn trên đỉnh mũi là gì?.
  • Ót rộng hơn phía trước đầu.
  • Vùng ảnh đã bị oxy hóa và làm khô (kết quả của việc sử dụng nhiệt để đốt hóa chất tạo ảnh. Sau đó dùng chất hóa học tẩy rửa).

Ngoài ra còn có các bất thường khác:

  • Tóc xếp theo chiều thẳng đứng của cơ thể (đáng lý phải nằm rủ xuống theo chiều ngang và in lên phía sau tấm vải liệm)
  • Những mô tả khác thường với việc tra tấn
  • Không dùng vải che thân dưới (khố), tại sao hai tay còn phải đặt lên phần nhạy cảm dù khi liệm không có quần áo.
  • Vẫn chảy máu sau khi đã chết?

Quan sát bằng mắt thường

Khăn liệm là miếng vải lanh dài 4,5 mét rộng 1,9 mét, dấu vết để lại do quá trình đốt sấy và được sửa chữa vào năm 1532

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Niên đại tấm vải theo phóng xạ carbon:

Theo phân tích của 3 phòng thí nghiệm khác nhau vào năm 1988, tất cả đều đồng ý một điểm chung là tấm vải có niên đại không quá thế kỷ 14. Tại thời điểm đó, cuộc Thập tự chinh đã mang về số lượng lớn các loại vải ngoại nhập có chất lượng tốt hơn nhiều so với loại thường tìm thấy tại các nhà thờ Châu Âu.

Rõ ràng đây là một tấm vải liệm giả mạo nhưng hình ảnh trên là gì? và được thực hiện như thế nào? Không có một kỹ thuật vẽ nào chúng ta được biết đến có thể tạo ra hiệu ứng như vậy. Đây cũng chính là thành trì cuối cùng của phe bảo vệ “tính xác thực”

Nghi án Leonardo da Vinci và bức ảnh chân dung tự chụp

“Có nhiều kẻ buôn thần bán thánh, lừa đảo ngu ngốc. Nếu không ai lột trần mặt nạ sự dối trá, chúng sẽ áp đặt tất cả điều này vào mọi người” – Leonardo da Vinci (bản thảo F, Institut de France, 5V)

Nổi tiếng với các kiệt tác nghệ thuật, Leonardo da Vinci còn là một nhà phát minh đại tài với những kiến thức sâu rộng về cơ thể con người và các cỗ máy chiến tranh. Ông là tác giả của không ít các khái niệm vật thể, phương tiện thông dụng ngày nay như xe kéo, xe đạp … và cả máy bay trực thăng. Sống trong thời đại của Tòa án dị giáo, vào cái thời mà chỉ đơn thuần là người ăn chay cũng có thể bị tội tử hình, ông luôn thận trọng với các lời chỉ trích từ Giáo hội, những người chỉ quan tâm đến Leonardo trong khả năng nghệ thuật để phục vụ Đức tin. Được giao nhiệm vụ tạo ra bức vải liệm tốt hơn để lưu giữ, Leonardo đã chơi khăm cả giáo hội và cả các nhà khoa học sau này bằng bức chân dung của chính mình in trên tấm vải liệm.

Trên thực tế tấm vải liệm chưa bao giờ được đề cập trong Kinh Tân ước và cả những người Kitô đạo hữu trước đó.

Tấm vải Thánh đã đem lại một phần lợi nhuận lớn cho ngành công nghiệp “hàng nháy” thời trung cổ – có hơn 40 tấm vải liệm tương tự được tìm thấy cho đến ngày nay. Chiếc khăn liệm Turin nổi tiêng nhờ xuất hiện đúng thời điểm, đó là ngày lễ “Thứ Sáu Tuần Thánh” năm 1494.

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Khuôn mặt trên tấm vải liệm (trái) và chân dung Leonardo da Vinci tự họa (bên phải).

Ma thuật của quỷ: Buồng tối (của nhiếp ảnh)

Triết gia Hy Lạp, Aristotle (thế kỷ thứ 4 trước Công nguyên) đã sớm có ghi nhận rằng “một lỗ nhỏ trong một căn phòng tối cho ra một hình ảnh phản chiếu và lộn ngược từ cảnh bên ngoài vào bức tường đối diện“. Vào thời La Mã người ta cũng đã biết đến một số chất liệu phản ứng với ánh sáng. Thách thức đối với các nhà giả kim thuật thời Phục hưng và nghệ sĩ là làm thế nào có thể thu giữ được hình ảnh bằng vật liệu thích hợp mà không bị kết án bởi Tòa án dị giáo.

Leonardo, là một người có kỹ năng xuất sắc trong cả nghệ thuật, khéo léo trong kỹ thuật và cực khôn ngoan khi đối phó với Giáo hội, ông đã vượt qua thách thức đó.

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Phác thảo của Leonardo “oculus artificialis” 
(mắt nhân tạo) – Buồng tối.

Leonardo từng phục vụ nhiều khách quen giàu có vùng Renaissance, bao gồm cả Giuliano de Medici, con rể của Công tước Savoy. Nhà Savoy (trở thành gia đình Hoàng gia Ý) đã có mua lại trước đó một tấm “vải liệm Thánh” từ một gia đình quý tộc người Pháp năm 1453.

Tấm vải liệm này bị các giám mục địa phương lên án là dùng để lừa gạt khách hành hương cả tin nhưng đáp lại là sự im lặng khó hiểu của Đức giáo hoàng, và người ta sau đó không ai còn thấy nó cho đến 30 năm sau.

Thông đồng với nhà Savoy, Giáo hoàng Innocent VIII (vị Giáo hoàng nổi tiếng với các bản án thiêu sống phù thủy, dị giáo và bị buộc tội có lên quan đến cái chết của nhà chính trị đại tài Lorenzo de Medici) đưa Leonardo tấm vải liệm này để tạo ra một phiên bản tốt hơn vào năm 1492.

Theo suy đoán có thể Leonardo đã làm việc này trong buồng tối một mình hoặc cùng người tình đồng giới của ông (Người ta đồn rằng Leonardo là người đồng tính và có một học trò giúp việc đồng thời là người tình của ông tên là Salai)

Hai năm sau đó, tấm vải liệm Chúa Kitô đột ngột xuất hiện, mặc dù trong “phi vụ” này Leonardo không được trả xu nào.

Cho đến vài trăm năm sau, một nhiếp ảnh gia đã đảo ngược lại bức ảnh của Leonardo và cho ra một bức ảnh rõ ràng hơn. Thế là câu chuyện Tấm vải liệm Turin đình đám gây xôn xao dư luận cũng từ đó lan truyền khắp thế giới.

Thưa ngài Leonardo, có phải ngài đang cười lộn ruột vào đám chúng sinh hậu bối ngày nay từ đâu đó trên trời?

———————————————————————————————

Nếu các bạn tin vào giả thuyết trên, thì không thể bỏ qua bộ phim đang rất “hot” trên HBO Da Vinci’s Demons . Bộ phim có phần nào đề cập về những tình tiết liên quan đến câu chuyện bạn vừa đọc.

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Poster phim Da Vinci’s Demons

Sơ Lược Nội Dung – Được mô tả theo kiểu phim lịch sử, loạt hình ảnh khám phá những câu chuyện chưa được kể về Da Vinci, người đã có những “phát minh” đi trước thời đại ở tuổi 25, tại một thời điểm trong lịch sử mà “tư tưởng và đức tin bị kiểm soát … ông như một người chiến đấu chống lại nó để định hướng cho trí thức tự do.” Lịch sử bí mật của cuộc sống hấp dẫn của Leonardo Da Vinci cho thấy một người đàn ông trẻ tuổi bị hành hạ bởi những món quà của thiên tài phi thường: một người dị giáo muốn để lộ nhiều điều dối trá của tôn giáo , một kẻ nổi loạn – người tìm cách lật đổ một xã hội tinh hoa và một người con hoang khao khát được cha mình công nhận là hợp pháp. Leonardo đang nằm trong vòng xoáy của cơn bão được hình thành từ thế kỷ trước: một cuộc xung đột giữa sự thật và dối trá, tôn giáo và lý trí, quá khứ và tương lai. Nguyện vọng của lực lượng bí ẩn này dồn ép ông dấn thân vào một “trò chơi quyến rũ” trong đó có sự khám phá, đấu trí căng thẳng hơn là kết quả đã hình thành của nó. Phải đối mặt với một tương lai không thể định hướng, nhiệm vụ cho sáng tạo để hoàn tác như là trò chơi vượt qua giới hạn tối cao của lý trí. Da Vinci, sau đó đã ẩn bóng trong thiên tài của mình và nổi lên như một lực lượng không thể ngăn cản của bóng tối mà phải mất một thời gian dài về sau, người ta mới làm sáng tỏ được chúng. – Theo Wiki


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