Những bản vẽ phẫu thuật rùng rợn Thế kỷ 19

Những bản vẽ phẫu thuật rùng rợn Thế kỷ 19

Trong khi phẫu thuật hiện nay mang lại những rủi ro, nguy hiểm nhưng nó chẳng thể so được nỗi đau trước sự ra đời của thuốc gây mê vào năm 1846, khi John Collins Warren thực hiện thành công ca mổ sử dụng chất gây mê Ether tại Bệnh viện Đa khoa Massachusetts.

Trước khi có chất gây mê, phẫu thuật sẽ là phương pháp cuối cùng:” Một cảnh tượng thê thảm,không hiệu quả của khoa học” nhà giải phẫu học người Scotland – John Hunter nói trong năm 1750. Đó là thử thách để trở thành một chuyên gia y tế trước khi có chất gây mê, thì điều tồi tệ nhất sẽ chịu là bệnh nhân. Tiểu thuyết gia Fanny Burney mô tả cắt bỏ vú của mình vào năm 1811 – mà không có bất kỳ chất gây mê – cảm giác thật thú vị và đáng sợ giống một trận chiến đấu. (Thậm chí tệ hơn, khi đó không phải căn bệnh ung thư như các bác sĩ thời đó đã chẩn đoán.)

“Khi thanh thép ghê sợ cắt vào vú – cắt qua tĩnh mạch – động mạch – thịt – thần kinh- tôi không kiềm chế tiếng khóc của tôi. Tôi bắt đầu một tiếng thét kéo dài trong toàn bộ thời gian của vết rạch – và tôi gần như ngạc nhiên rằng tôi vẫn nghe thất tiếng kim loại ? Thật sự là đau đớn vô cùng.”

Crucial Interventions, cuốn sách rất quan trọng về sự phát triển của phẫu thuật, một bộ sưu tập các hình minh hoạ phẫu thuật khủng khiếp và bản vẽ kỹ thuật từ Thế kỷ 17,18 và 19. 

Giải phẫu nách, với động mạch nách gắn lên để ngăn chặn dòng chảy của máu, 1848.

Buộc các động mạch ở cánh tay và khuỷu tay thấp hơn để ngăn chặn dòng chảy của máu, 1846. 

Phẫu thuật mắt để sửa lác,1846. 

Phẫu thuật ung thư lưỡi, 1846 
Thêm chú thích

Mặt cắt dọc của bộ não người, năm 1844. 

Sinh con theo mổ, 1840 

Phẫu thuật cắt bỏ vú và băng vết thương, 1841 

Khâu một động mạch ở vùng háng bằng đường khâu và một cái móc khâu, trong khi nén bụng để giảm lưu lượng máu động mạch chủ, 1841. 

Dụng cụ phẫu thuật được sử dụng để cắt cụt, xương và nội tạng, năm 1841. 

Loại bỏ các hàm dưới, 1841 

Cắt cụt các ngón chân và bàn chân, 1841. 

Minh họa của ca phẫu thuật, 1846. 

Điều trị rò lệ đạo (một tổn thương nhỏ gần mắt), được thực hiện trên một nữ tu, vào khoảng năm 1675. 

Trích máu, hay rút máu để ngăn ngừa bệnh tật, vào khoảng năm 1675. 

Người phụ nữ mổ vú, vào khoảng năm 1675. 

Cắt ngang ngực để lộ mạch phổi, tim và huyết tiểu học, 1856 


Người dịch: Hoàng Nam

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