Tấm giấy cói 4.500 tuổi mô tả việc xây dựng kim tự tháp Ai Cập

Tấm giấy cói 4.500 tuổi mô tả việc xây dựng kim tự tháp Ai Cập


Các nhà khảo cổ phát hiện một tấm giấy cói hàng nghìn năm tuổi ghi chép chi tiết việc xây dựng Đại kim tự tháp Giza, Ai Cập.

Tấm giấy cói 4.500 tuổi mô tả việc xây dựng kim tự tháp Ai Cập

Theo International Business Times, một bản giấy cói cổ xưa ghi chép chi tiết việc xây dựng Đại kim tự tháp Giza cũng như cuộc sống hàng ngày của những người làm việc ở công trường này được trưng bày tại Bảo tàng Ai Cập ở Cairo từ ngày 15/7.


Đại kim tự tháp Giza được xây dựng để tôn vinh Pharaoh Khufu, người cai trị Vương triều thứ tư của Ai Cập kéo dài từ năm 2551 đến năm 2528 trước Công nguyên.

Đây là kim tự tháp lớn nhất trong số ba kim tự tháp trên cao nguyên Giza. Đại kim tự tháp Giza lúc mới xây dựng xong cao 146 mét, nhưng đến nay chỉ còn 138 mét. Một số học giả cho rằng, phòng của vua ở trung tâm kim tự tháp chứa hài cốt Pharaoh Khufu.

Năm 2013, Pierre Tallet và Gregory Marouard dẫn đầu một nhóm khảo cổ Pháp và Ai Cập phát hiện bản nhật ký viết trên giấy cói tại Wadi el-Jarf, một bến cảng ven Biển Đỏ. Bản nhật ký viết chữ tượng hình có niên đại 4.500 năm, khiến nó trở thành tài liệu giấy cói cổ xưa nhất con người từng biết đến.

Trong bài báo xuất bản trên tạp chí Khảo cổ học Vùng Cận Đông năm 2014, Tallet và Marouard cho biết tác giả của mảnh giấy cói là Merer, giám sát viên phụ trách nhóm công nhân gồm khoảng 200 người đàn ông.

“Bản nhật ký ghi chép nhiều hoạt động liên quan đến việc xây dựng Đại kim tự tháp Giza và công việc tại mỏ đá vôi ở bờ bên kia sông Nile dưới dạng thời gian biểu, chia hai cột mỗi ngày”, Tallet và Marouard cho biết.

Nội dung của nhật ký nói rằng, Đại kim tự tháp Giza đã gần hoàn thành. Công việc còn lại tập trung vào việc xây dựng lớp vỏ đá vôi bên ngoài kim tự tháp. Công nhân khai thác đá vôi tại Tura, gần Cairo ngày nay. Họ vận chuyển đá vôi tới kim tự tháp bằng thuyền dọc theo sông Nile và một hệ thống kênh rạch. Thời gian vận chuyển mất khoảng 4 ngày từ Tura đến kim tự tháp.

Theo bản nhật ký, tể tướng Ankhaf là người giám sát quá trình xây dựng Đại kim tự tháp Giza vào năm thứ 27 dưới thời cai trị của Pharaoh Khufu. Một trong những chức danh Ankhaf nắm giữ là “người đứng đầu cho tất cả công việc của nhà vua”.

Tuy nhiên, nhiều học giả tin rằng người giám sát việc xây dựng kim tự tháp có thể là tể tướng Hemon. Ông phụ trách xây dựng kim tự tháp trong suốt những năm đầu của triều đại Pharaoh Khufu.

Theo khoahoc.tv

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