Bí ẩn trăm năm về ‘Thác máu’ ở Nam Cực đã được giải mã

Bí ẩn trăm năm về ‘Thác máu’ ở Nam Cực đã được giải mã


Mới đây, một nhóm các nhà nghiên cứu thuộc 2 trường Đại học của Mỹ là Alaska Fairbanks và Colorado tuyên bố đã giải mã được bí ẩn thế kỷ của “Thác máu” tại Nam Cực.

Nguồn gốc của dòng nước màu đỏ máu chảy từ sông băng Taylor ở phía đông Nam Cực khiến các nhà thám hiểm băn khoăn từ khi được phát hiện lần đầu tiên năm 1911. Tuy nhiên, các nhà nghiên cứu ở Đại học Alaska Fairbanks và Colorado, Mỹ, cho biết họ đã tìm ra câu trả lời và công bố kết quả hôm 24/4 trên tạp chí Glaciology.

Nhà nghiên cứu Jessica Badgeley (thuộc trường Đại học Colorado) cùng nhà sông băng học Erin Pettit và cộng sự (thuộc trường Alaska Fairbanks) có phát hiện hoàn toàn mới. Sử dụng thiết bị chuyên dụng, các nhà khoa học đã tìm ra bí mật tại hồ nước nằm sâu 400 mét băng.

Jessica Badgeley giải thích: “Dòng nước mặn đỏ màu máu là một hệ sinh thái của loài vi khuẩn cổ mắc kẹt hàng triệu năm dưới lòng đất. Không ánh sáng Mặt trời, nhiệt độ chạm ngưỡng âm 5 độ C và độ mặn gấp 3 lần nước biển vẫn không giết nổi chúng. Chúng là những vi khuẩn tự dưỡng hiếm có trên Trái Đất.”

Màu đỏ của “Thác máu” là kết quả của sự kết tủa oxit sắt khi nước muối mang oxit sắt kém bền tiếp xúc với oxy trong không khí.

Bí ẩn trăm năm về ‘Thác máu’ ở Nam Cực đã được giải mã

“Thác máu” tại Nam Cực

Vào mùa hè, nhiệt độ ở Nam Cực ấm hơn, điều này khiến cho nước hồ có cơ hội trồi lên. Đó là lý do chúng ta thấy có “Thác máu” kỳ lạ chảy mãi cho đến tận ngày nay.

Nhà sông băng học Erin Pettit nói thêm: “Với thiết bị “nghe ngóng” âm vang từ hồ nước bên dưới tảng băng dày 400m, giống như loài dơi dùng tai để “nhìn” mọi thứ trong bóng tối, chúng tôi “nhìn” thấy những thứ diễn ra tại hồ nước mặn này.

Thật khó tin khi phát hiện một hồ nước lỏng tồn tại bên dưới lớp băng dày lạnh dưới 0 độ. Điều thú vị là, hồ nước chứa các chất sắt này lại cực mặn khiến nó không thể đóng băng. Và hồ nước lỏng đó lại trở thành môi trường sinh thái cho loại vi khuẩn tự dưỡng cổ sinh sống”.


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An interesting reality is that, according to a study accomplished as soon as, Puerto Ricans are the happiest nation on the planet. If this holds true, it would certainly indicate that the famous statement that money does not bring joy has a grain of reality in it. It is estimated that almost half of the residents of PR fight with hardship, which can be seen while circumnavigating the island. Because Puerto Rico is an island, it is certainly an airplane Or a ship, if you wish to hook up on PR throughout a cruise in the Caribbean. The main airport terminal in San Juan the capital is well gotten in touch with significant United States cities. From what I remember, our trip from Atlanta lasted 3 hrs It is best to rent out a vehicle in Puerto Rico and travel around the island this way. We had the opportunity to make use of the general public Puerto Rico transportation just when, in the form of a ferry, and if all the remainder functions according to similar rules, I strongly suggest this car than nerve-racking Pointer – it’s truly worth renting out a cars and truck with a higher suspension. We did not know about it and also we decided to get some little gingerbread because of the very best rate. We quickly regretted this decision, due to the fact that some edges of Puerto Rico are best discovered with a 4×4 SUV. Caribbean, an island between the Caribbean Sea as well as the North Atlantic Sea, eastern of the Dominican Republic, purposefully situated on the Mona Strait – a key route to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the largest and ideal all-natural harbors in the Caribbean; a lot of small rivers and also high mountains in the facility of the nation ensure great irrigation of the nation; the south coastline is reasonably dry; in the north, a fertile strip of coastal plains. Nobody flies to Puerto Rico to see its air-conditioned government structures. You desire enjoyable in the sun. The bright side is that Flamenco Beach will certainly live up to your musings and then some. Not just does it offer white sand as well as blue water that vibrates coming up, yet it likewise flaunts washrooms, lifeguards, food booths, volley ball webs as well as traveler terminals where you can rent out devices for points like snorkeling and diving. Puerto Rico’s economic climate is one of one of the most dynamically creating in the Caribbean. The varied market has actually clearly exceeded farming as the primary driving pressure of the economic climate and also an income source. Since the 1950s, American companies have been investing greatly on the island, motivated by duty-free accessibility to the United States market and also tax breaks. The island has US minimum wage legislations. Sugar manufacturing lost its prominent setting in farming to dairy products and livestock production. Tourist is typically an important income, it is estimated that Puerto Rico was checked out by virtually 5 million people in 2004. 2001-03 saw a decrease in economic growth, generally as a result of the United States economic downturn; in 2004-05 there was an economic development, as well as in 2006-07 it fell again. Puerto Rico is one of the most dynamically developing Caribbean countries. The diversified market has actually outdone agriculture and is currently the primary income source. Considering that the 1950s, American firms have actually been investing on the island, motivated by the duty-free exchange with the U.S.A. as well as tax obligation incentives. The island goes through US base pay law. Sugar manufacturing reduced, and the dairy market as well as animals manufacturing came to be the main income source. Tourism has been a vital income for many years. It is estimated that in 1999 Puerto Rico was checked out by 5 million vacationers. The diagnosis for 2000 is good, supplied that the economic boom in the United States as well as the development patterns in tourist and also building and construction proceed. Every person desired an item of the New Globe, as well as everybody was willing to eliminate to get it. No place is this more obvious than the Castillo San Felipe del Morro. Formally called La Ruta del Lechón, the Pork Freeway is specifically what it seems like: a three-mile stretch of roadway where every restaurant concentrates on pork. The most preferred sort of pork is lechón, a special dish in Puerto Rico that entails spit-roasting a whole pig with a mix of sauces and spices. Obtain your blood pumping with a trip to the Toro Verde Theme park in main Puerto Rico. It provides ziplines, rope programs and rock climbing up obstacles that are assured to make you pee your trousers a little when you realize simply what you’ve obtained into! The park’s main attraction is “The Monster,” which is noted in the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest zipline in the world. With cobbled streets, busy plazas as well as vibrant homes that stack with each other like foundation of yellow, blue, green, orange and also blue-green, Old San Juan is one of the most vibrant places to check out in Puerto Rico. This is why areas like Isla Culebrita exist. Isla Culebrita is an unoccupied island off the coast of eastern Puerto Rico. It’s just regarding a mile long, and also access is limited to ferries as well as water taxis. Museo de Las Americas There are numerous galleries in Puerto Rico, but only a handful are really about Puerto Rico. The Museo de Las Americas is one of these valuable places. It has artifacts, symbols and also fabrics from lots of native groups that lived in Latin America before it was conquered, and also it can take you on a multi-continental journey via history. If you such as to eat, Mayaguez is the city for you. It’s home to every little thing from fine eating establishments to outdoor cafes with huge, vibrant umbrellas, so you’ll have lots of alternatives when your tummy begins roaring. El Yunque National Forestis Treatment more than 28,000 acres, the El Yunque National Park is a lush, moist rain forest where thick foliage covers every little thing from crawling snakes to croaking tree frogs. It’s the only tropical rainforest in Puerto Rico, and also site visitors originate from all over the Carribean to witness both its charm as well as biodiversity. Found in the city of Cabo Rojo on the southernmost tip of Puerto Rico, the Los Morrillos Lighthouse is one of those gorgeous places that you can only find in the Caribbean. It’s set down in addition to white sedimentary rock high cliffs that are surrounded by salt marshes and also lagoons, as well as the waves accident against the high cliffs with a violence that’s stunning however attractive. Cayo Santiago is a tiny stretch of land off the eastern shore of Puerto Rico.

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  31. We decided that it would be Puerto Rico in around five mins, as well as after an additional ten we already had our flight tickets booked:-RRB-)))) Our trip lasted 7 days and also certainly, as usual, it was a trip on our own. We intended our travel plan ourselves and picked the locations that seemed one of the most intriguing to us. In today’s blog post, I will certainly concentrate on useful details about Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is a dependent region of the USA uncorporated organized area on the Atlantic Sea and the Caribbean Sea. Because of this, travelers from the USA do not need a ticket to get there, a United States driving permit is rather sufficient right here. The trip is taken into consideration residential – so in the case of Atlanta, where the massive airport is divided right into residential as well as worldwide flights, we flew typically from the domestic one. The money of Puerto Rico is, naturally, United States bucks, which was a great assistance for us. In addition, United States cellular networks run usually right here. And at the very same prices for telephone calls, messages and also network – a godsend, especially when it concerns the Web! Especially considering that the wifi in numerous places in Puerto Rico was so bad. The main languages are Spanish and also English – however the huge majority of locals talk rather the previous. Puerto Rico lies in the humid equatorial climate area, and the ordinary yearly temperature level is around 25 levels Celsius. The traveler season ranges from December 15 to April 15, and also tropical hefty rainfalls usually happen in the high period. And also it turned out to be true – during our week-long remain it really did not rainfall just one day. Luckily, the rainfall, although it was putting down, came very swiftly and after 15-20 minutes the storm mored than as well as the sun was shining once again. An intriguing fact is that, according to a study carried out when, Puerto Ricans are the happiest country worldwide. If this is true, it would certainly suggest that the popular declaration that money does not bring happiness has a grain of reality in it. It is estimated that virtually half of the occupants of PR have problem with poverty, which can be seen while traveling around the island. Since Puerto Rico is an island, it is absolutely an airplane Or a ship, if you intend to link on PR throughout a cruise ship in the Caribbean. The primary airport terminal in San Juan the funding is well connected with significant United States cities. From what I remember, our flight from Atlanta lasted 3 hours It is best to lease a cars and truck in Puerto Rico and also travel around the island in this way. We had the chance to use the public Puerto Rico transport just as soon as, in the form of a ferry, and if all the remainder functions according to similar policies, I strongly recommend this car than aggravating Tip – it’s actually worth leasing an automobile with a higher suspension. We did not know concerning it as well as we chose to get some tiny gingerbread as a result of the best cost. We promptly regretted this choice, since some edges of Puerto Rico are best checked out with a 4×4 SUV. Caribbean, an island in between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Sea, east of the Dominican Republic, tactically situated on the Mona Strait – a crucial path to the Panama Canal; San Juan is just one of the biggest and finest all-natural harbors in the Caribbean; a large number of little rivers and also high mountains in the facility of the country guarantee great irrigation of the country; the south shore is fairly completely dry; in the north, a productive strip of coastal plains. Nobody flies to Puerto Rico to see its cool government structures. You desire enjoyable in the sun. The bright side is that Flamenco Coastline will certainly meet your daydreams and after that some. Not just does it supply white sand as well as blue water that shimmies imminent, but it likewise boasts shower rooms, lifeguards, food booths, beach ball webs and also tourist stations where you can lease equipment for things like snorkeling and also diving. Puerto Rico’s economic situation is among one of the most dynamically creating in the Caribbean. The diversified industry has clearly outmatched farming as the primary driving force of the economic climate and also an income source. Since the 1950s, American business have been investing heavily on the island, motivated by duty-free access to the United States market and tax obligation breaks. The island has United States base pay laws. Sugar manufacturing lost its prominent position in farming to milk and livestock production. Tourist is typically an essential income source, it is estimated that Puerto Rico was gone to by almost 5 million individuals in 2004. 2001-03 saw a decline in financial development, mainly as a result of the US economic downturn; in 2004-05 there was an economic development, and also in 2006-07 it dropped once again. Puerto Rico is one of the most dynamically creating Caribbean nations. The varied sector has actually outshined agriculture as well as is now the main income. Given that the 1950s, American companies have actually been investing on the island, motivated by the duty-free exchange with the U.S.A. and tax motivations. The island is subject to United States base pay regulation. Sugar manufacturing lowered, and the dairy market and livestock manufacturing ended up being the primary source of income. Tourist has actually been an essential income for many years. It is estimated that in 1999 Puerto Rico was seen by 5 million tourists. The prognosis for 2000 is excellent, supplied that the economic boom in the US as well as the development fads in tourism as well as construction continue. Everybody wanted an item of the New Globe, as well as everybody wanted to combat to get it. No place is this more noticeable than the Castillo San Felipe del Morro. Officially called La Ruta del Lechón, the Pork Highway is precisely what it sounds like: a three-mile stretch of road where every dining establishment focuses on pork. One of the most popular type of pork is lechón, a special meal in Puerto Rico that entails spit-roasting a whole pig with a mix of sauces as well as seasonings. Obtain your blood pumping with a journey to the Toro Verde Adventure Park in central Puerto Rico. It provides ziplines, rope courses and also rock climbing obstacles that are ensured to make you pee your pants a little when you recognize simply what you’ve gotten yourself right into! The park’s main attraction is “The Monster,” which is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the lengthiest zipline in the world. With cobbled roads, active plazas as well as colorful houses that stack with each other like building blocks of yellow, blue, environment-friendly, orange as well as turquoise, Old San Juan is one of one of the most lively areas to go to in Puerto Rico. This is why locations like Isla Culebrita exist. Isla Culebrita is an unoccupied island off the coast of eastern Puerto Rico. It’s only concerning a mile long, as well as gain access to is restricted to ferries and also water taxis. Museo de Las Americas There are several museums in Puerto Rico, however just a handful are actually about Puerto Rico. The Museo de Las Americas is one of these valuable areas. It has artefacts, symbols and fabrics from lots of native groups that lived in Latin America before it was colonized, and it can take you on a multi-continental journey with history. If you such as to eat, Mayaguez is the city for you. It’s house to every little thing from great dining establishments to outdoor cafes with huge, colorful umbrellas, so you’ll have lots of options when your stomach starts growling. El Yunque National Forestis Covering more than 28,000 acres, the El Yunque National Forest is a rich, moist jungle where thick vegetation covers everything from wriggling serpents to croaking tree frogs. It’s the only exotic rain forest in Puerto Rico, and also site visitors originate from all over the Carribean to witness both its elegance and biodiversity. Situated in the city of Cabo Rojo on the southernmost suggestion of Puerto Rico, the Los Morrillos Lighthouse is among those beautiful areas that you can just discover in the Caribbean. It’s perched on top of white limestone cliffs that are surrounded by salt marshes and shallows, and the waves accident against the high cliffs with a violence that’s startling but lovely. Cayo Santiago is a little stretch of land off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico.

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