Tảng băng một nghìn tỷ tấn đã tách khỏi Nam Cực

Tảng băng một nghìn tỷ tấn đã tách khỏi Nam Cực


Tảng băng có diện tích hơn 6.000km2 và trọng lượng một nghìn tỷ tấn đã tách khỏi lục địa băng Nam Cực, trở thành một trong những núi băng trôi lớn nhất lịch sử.

Theo BBC, các nhà khoa học đã xác nhận tảng băng khổng lồ đã hoàn toàn tách rời thềm băng Larsen C ở Nam Cực hôm 12/7 thông qua hình ảnh vệ tinh sau hơn một thập kỷ theo dõi.

Tảng băng dày hơn 200m sẽ không di chuyển xa và nhanh trong ngắn hạn, tuy nhiên cần phải theo dõi chặt chẽ để đảm bảo an toàn giao thông hàng hải. Thềm băng Larsen C mất khoảng 10% tổng diện tích bề mặt sau khi tảng băng tách rời.

Tảng băng một nghìn tỷ tấn đã tách khỏi Nam Cực
Vết nứt trên thêm thềm băng Larsen C dẫn đến sự tách rời. (Ảnh: AFP/Getty).

“Các nhà khoa học về băng hà giờ đây sẽ theo dõi chặt chẽ xem liệu phần còn lại của thềm băng Larsen C có trở nên kém ổn định hơn trước hay không. Đồng thời, các nhà sinh vật học cũng sẽ tìm hiểu những hệ sinh thái mới hình thành do sự tách rời này sẽ như thế nào”, Daily Mail dẫn lời nhà phân tích Andrew Fleming của Cơ quan Nghiên cứu Nam Cực của Anh (BAS).

Thềm băng phân tách là một hiện tượng tự nhiên, nhưng sự ấm lên toàn cầu được cho là đã góp phần đẩy nhanh quá trình này. Nước biển nóng lên “bào mòn” thềm băng từ bên dưới trong khi nhiệt độ không khí tăng làm giảm diện tích thềm băng từ phía trên.

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Tảng băng tách ra (nằm trong vùng màu xám) có diện tích tương đương xứ Wales của Anh, gấp 4 lần diện tích London, 7 lần diện tích New York. (Đồ họa: Project MIDAS).

Chuyên gia Rod Downie, trưởng các chương trình về vùng cực của Quỹ Thiên nhiên Hoang dã Thế giới tại Anh (WWF-UK), nói sự kiện này khiến các nhà khoa học phải“vẽ lại” bản đồ vùng bán đảo Nam Cực. Ông cũng cảnh báo tính chất ”mong manh”hiện nay của 2 vùng cực trái đất.

“Dù đây là chuyện Nam Cực làm những gì nó làm, sự kiện cho thấy các vùng cực mong manh thế nào”, ông nói. “Các vùng cực ảnh hưởng rất lớn đến đại dương và khí quyển. Song khu vực tây Nam Cực đã chứng kiến sự ấm lên với tốc độ thuộc hàng nhanh nhất địa cầu trong những thập niên gần đây. Đó là tin không tốt cho những loài đặc chủng như chim cánh cụ Adélie hay chim cánh cụt hoàng đế”.

Các thềm băng có vai trò ngăn các sông băng chảy thẳng ra biển. Vì vậy, các nhà khoa học cho biết nếu các sông băng ở Nam Cực được thềm băng Larsen C kiểm soát chảy thẳng vào đại dương thì mực nước biển toàn cầu sẽ dâng lên khoảng 10 cm.


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