Giải thích bí ẩn cơn sóng thần khổng lồ ập vào Greenland

Giải thích bí ẩn cơn sóng thần khổng lồ ập vào Greenland


Ngày 17 tháng 6 vừa qua, một cơn sóng thần khổng lồ cao 100 mét đã xuất hiện và đổ ập vào một vùng biển thuộc Nuugaatsiaq, miền tây nam Greenland.

Cơn sóng thần này thật sự bí ẩn và đây là giải thích khoa học cho nó. Cơn sóng thần được gây ra bởi một vụ sạt lở đất trên núi, nó lớn đến nỗi tự tạo ra một cơn địa chấn mạnh 4,1 độ Richter và lan sang các khu vực xung quanh đó.

Cơn sóng thần cao đến 100 mét, lập kỷ lục cơn sóng cao nhất trong lịch sử từng ập vào khu vực này. Cơn sóng tràn vào khu dân cư khiến 4 người thiệt mạng và hàng chục người khác bị thương, chủ yếu là những người dân làng đang đánh bắt cá.

Giải thích bí ẩn cơn sóng thần khổng lồ ập vào Greenland
Khu vực làng chài vùng Nuugaatsiaq, tây nam Greendland, nơi xảy ra cơn sóng thần khổng lồ. (Ảnh: Wikipedia).

Hầu hết các cơn sóng thần được tạo ra do sự trượt các mảng lục địa ở những nơi đứt gãy dưới đáy biển, sự chênh lệch đột ngột làm phát sinh một lực khổng lồ đẩy từ đáy biển lên mặt biển và tạo ra những cơn sóng cao khủng khiếp.

Những trận động đất lớn hầu như đều kéo theo sóng thần. Nhưng ngoài sóng thần do động đất gây nên, còn một loại sóng thần khác được tạo ra khi các vật thể lớn như một tảng đất đá lớn từ các ngọn núi bị sạt, một quả đồi bị trượt xuống, hay một tiểu hành tinh, tác động trực tiếp vào một vùng nước cạn.

Khi điều này xảy ra, nó sẽ tạo nên một dòng nước cực mạnh đẩy ra các phía. Những cơn sóng này thường không cao như các cơn sóng thần thông thường, nhưng sức tàn phá của nó là hết sức ghê gớm và nghiêm trọng.

Trong lịch sử đã xảy ra một sự việc tương tự tại thành phố cổ Thera (nay thuộc khu vực thành phố Santorini của Hy Lạp), ngọn núi lửa ở giữa thành phố đảo bất ngờ bùng phát và cuốn trôi một lượng vật chất lớn xuống biển, điều này tạo nên một cơn sóng khổng lồ và cuốn trôi mọi thứ, nhấn chìm gần như toàn bộ nền văn minh này xuống biển Aegean vĩnh viễn.

Sự sạt lở đất đá và băng tuyết trên các ngọn núi xuống biển tạo nên những cơn sóng lớn và bất ngờ. (Ảnh: Georgia Institute of Technology).

Hay gần hơn vào năm 1792 khi núi lửa Unzen nổi tiếng của Nhật Bản bất ngờ phun trào, toàn bộ phần núi phía nam bị sạt lở và chìm lập tức xuống biển sâu, tạo nên cơn sóng thần khủng khiếp giết chết 15.000 người đang sinh sống ở phía bên kia của vịnh biển.

Trước đây ở khu vực này cũng đã ghi nhận cơn sóng thần cao đến 500 mét đánh thẳng vào vịnh Lituya, Alaska vào năm 1958, tạo ra cơn địa chấn mạnh đến 8,3 độ Richter.

Tình hình biến đổi khí hậu đang tiếp tục diễn ra theo chiều hướng xấu đi, nhiệt độ trên toàn cầu dần trở nên ấm hơn và băng đá ở những vùng băng vĩnh cữu như Greenland cũng vì thế mà tan chảy dần, gây sạt lở núi tuyết và tạo nên những cơn sóng thần bất ngờ này.


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