Những khu vực cấm khám phá trên sao Hỏa

Những khu vực cấm khám phá trên sao Hỏa

Một số khu vực đặc biệt trên sao Hỏa trở thành vùng cấm tiếp cận đối với các nhà thám hiểm hoặc người máy trong tương lai.

Những khu vực cấm khám phá trên sao Hỏa
Rất khó để sinh vật có thể sống sót trên bề mặt cằn cỗi của sao Hỏa. Ảnh: NASA.

Nếu muốn khám phá sao Hỏa, chúng ta cần chắc chắn không làm lây nhiễm cho hành tinh các vi khuẩn có nguồn gốc từ Trái Đất, theo IFL Science. Hầu hết khu vực trên sao Hỏa có môi trường quá khắc nghiệt đối với sự sống trên Trái Đất. Tuy nhiên, tại một số nơi, vi khuẩn đi cùng với tàu vũ trụ sống sót được, dẫn đến phát hiện sai về sự sống trên hành tinh đỏ trong tương lai.

Các nhà khoa học đưa ra ý tưởng về “Khu vực Đặc biệt”. Theo định nghĩa trong Chính sách Bảo vệ Hành tinh năm 2008 của Ủy ban Nghiên cứu Vũ trụ (COSPAR), đây là những khu vực mà sinh vật Trái Đất có thể sinh sôi nảy nở hoặc địa điểm có khả năng cao tồn tại các dạng sống trên sao Hỏa.

Năm 2016, định nghĩa này được cập nhật để trở nên rõ ràng hơn. Khu vực Đặc biệt là một khu vực có mức độ hoạt động của nước (water activity) từ 0,5 đến 1. Ngoài ra, nhiệt độ phải đủ ấm để để hỗ trợ các sinh vật sống trên cạn, khoảng -25°C hoặc cao hơn.

“Hiện nay chúng tôi chưa xác định được một Khu vực Đặc biệt nào trên sao Hỏa. Chúng tôi đã định nghĩa chúng nhưng chưa tìm thấy chúng”, John Rummel tại Đại học East Carolina, Mỹ, nói.

Nếu Khu vực Đặc biệt trên sao Hỏa tồn tại, các nhà khoa học cần làm sạch tàu vũ trụ trước khi thám hiểm hành tinh này để tiêu diệt vi khuẩn Trái Đất. Hiện nay, công nghệ hiện đại có thể khử trùng tàu vũ trụ khá tốt, nhưng vẫn có khả năng vi khuẩn còn sót lại và được đưa lên sao Hỏa.

Một số nhà khoa học cho rằng tại thời điểm nào đó trong quá khứ, sao Hỏa từng là hành tinh tràn đầy sức sống và ấm áp gần giống như Trái Đất ngày nay. Hoạt động núi lửa đóng vai trò quan trọng trong sự tuần hoàn của khí quyển. Phần lõi nóng giúp sao Hỏa duy trì từ trường, bảo vệ hành tinh khỏi tác động của gió Mặt Trời. Nhưng sau đó phần lõi lạnh đi, tất cả từ trường biến mất, không khí trở nên loãng và môi trường sao Hỏa dần khắc nghiệt, không phù hợp với sự sống.

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