Bằng chứng đầu tiên về nguồn gốc hình thành bụi vũ trụ

Bằng chứng đầu tiên về nguồn gốc hình thành bụi vũ trụ


Lần đầu tiên trong lịch sử thiên văn, các nhà khoa học đã tìm thấy những bằng chứng chắc chắn về nguồn gốc hình thành bụi trong vũ trụ, đặc biệt giai đoạn vũ trụ sơ khai.


Các nhà khoa học cho biết, siêu tân tinh từng được xem là nguồn gốc chính về sự hình thành bụi trong vũ trụ, đặc biệt là trong giai đoạn sơ khai. Tuy nhiên cho đến nay, giới khoa học vẫn chưa có bất kì bằng chứng cụ thể nào cho thấy vụ nổ của siêu tân tinh có khả năng sản sinh lượng bụi khổng lồ.

Bằng chứng đầu tiên về nguồn gốc hình thành bụi vũ trụ

Hình ảnh minh họa siêu tân tinh nổi tiếng 1987A. Thiên hà của chúng ta có thể là một nơi rất bụi bặm và siêu tân tinh được cho là nguồn gốc của bụi vũ trụ đặc biệt là trong giai đoạn sơ khai – (Ảnh: Daily Mail)

Vào tháng 2/1987, vụ nổ siêu tân tinh nổi tiếng 1987A nằm trong đám mây Megallan lớn – nằm gần giải ngân hà chúng ta nhất, đã khởi đầu dự án nghiên cứu chi tiết giai đoạn đầu tiên về phần còn lại sau vụ nổ của một siêu tân tinh. Trước đây, với kính thiên văn hồng ngoại, các nhà khoa học chỉ phát hiện một lượng nhỏ bụi nóng sinh ra cùng với một lượng khí carbon monoxide và silicon monoxide đáng kể.

Được biết siêu tân tinh 1987A là nơi đặc biệt, không bị trộn lẫn với môi trường xung quanh. Vì thế nó vẫn được các nhà khoa học tập trung nghiên cứu, họ sử dụng kính thiên văn mới ALMA quan sát. Kết quả cho thấy, siêu tân tinh này vẫn chứa nhiều bí ẩn, không đơn thuần như những gì ta từng nghĩ. Qua những hình ảnh mới nhất của siêu tân tinh 1987A này, giới thiên văn đã có cái nhìn rõ hơn về khả năng sản sinh lượng bụi vũ trụ khổng lồ từ sau vụ nổ.

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Hình ảnh này cho thấy phần còn lại của siêu tân tinh 1987A trong ánh sáng của các bước sóng khác nhau được chụp từ kính viễn vọng ALMA. Các dữ liệu màu đỏ cho thấy bụi mới được hình thành ở khu trung tâm, dữ liệu màu xanh lá cây và màu xanh dương cho thấy sự mở rộng của sóng xung kích – (Ảnh: Daily Mail)

Ông Remy Indebetouw, nhà thiên văn thuộc Đài quan sát thiên văn quốc gia (NRAO) cho biết: “Chúng tôi có trong tay những bằng chứng đầu tiên cho thấy lượng bụi khổng lồ tập trung ở khu vực trung tâm, bị tống ra từ siêu tân tinh tương đối trẻ gần đó. Đây cũng là lần đầu tiên, lịch sử thiên văn có những bằng chứng chắc chắn về nguồn gốc hình thành bụi, đặc biệt trong giai đoạn vũ trụ sơ khai. Phát hiện lần này đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc nghiên cứu sự tiến hoá của các thiên hà”.

Bụi trong vũ trụ có thể tạo ra nhiều cách. Nhưng trong vũ trụ sơ khai, chắc chắn nó được tạo ra từ siêu tân tinh. Và cuối cùng, các nhà khoa học cũng có những bằng chứng trực tiếp để chứng mình cho lý thuyết trên.

Bụi vũ trụ là gì?

Bụi vũ trụ là các hạt vật chất cỡ nhỏ phân tán trong khoảng không giữa các thiên thể. Theo quan niệm hiện nay, bụi vũ trụ cấu thành từ các hạt có kích thước khoảng 1 μm với lõi (nhân) là graphit và silicat. Trong các thiên hà, chúng tập hợp thành các đám mây như đám mây Oort và tinh vân.


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