Chính thức tìm ra vật chất chiếm quá nửa vũ trụ bị che giấu hàng tỉ năm

Chính thức tìm ra vật chất chiếm quá nửa vũ trụ bị che giấu hàng tỉ năm


Địa điểm cất giấu số vật chất này đã được tiết lộ, và phải nhờ đến công sức của 2 nhóm nghiên cứu hoàn toàn biệt lập.


Lần đầu tiên trong lịch sử, các nhà khoa học chính thức xác nhận đã tìm ra loại vật chất bí ẩn mà vũ trụ đã che giấu hàng tỉ năm nay. Đây là thành quả của hai nhóm chuyên gia vật lý thiên văn hoàn toàn tách biệt.

Theo các kiến thức vật lý đã biết, vũ trụ được cấu thành bởi 3 yếu tố: vật chất thường (regular matter), vật chất tối (dark matter), và năng lượng tối (dark energy). Có điều, hiện chúng ta chưa có manh mối về vật chất và năng lượng tối, trong khi vật chất thường mới chỉ được xác định khoảng 50%.

Chính thức tìm ra vật chất chiếm quá nửa vũ trụ bị che giấu hàng tỉ năm

Vũ trụ được cấu thành bởi 3 yếu tố: vật chất thường, vật chất tối và năng lượng tối.

Vật chất thường gồm các hạt cơ bản là proton, neutron và electron. Các chuyên gia đã đặt giả thuyết chúng lẩn trốn ở khoảng không gian giữa các ngân hà, nhưng phải cần đến 2 nghiên cứu mới đây từ Viện vật lý thiên văn không gian (Orsay, Pháp) và ĐH Edinburgh (Scotland), khoa học mới chứng thực được điều này.

Cụ thể, nghiên cứu chỉ ra rằng lượng vật chất “mất tích” ấy nằm gọn trong các sợi khí kết nối giữa các ngân hà với nhau. Lượng khí này rất nóng, nhưng lại có mật độ cực kỳ thấp, khiến không một kính thiên văn nào có thể quan sát trực tiếp được.

May mắn thay, lượng khí này để lại các dấu hiệu rất đặc trưng bên trong CMB (Bức xạ nền) – khái niệm chỉ bức xạ đầu tiên của vụ trụ, xuất phát từ vụ nổ Big Bang. Các photon mang năng lượng thấp từ CMB va chạm với electron từ lượng khí này, tước đi một ít năng lượng và khiến CMB thay đổi.

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Khu vực kết nối giữa các ngân hà chứa đến quá nửa số vật chất thường trong vũ trụ.

Vấn đề nằm ở chỗ, dù sử dụng các thiết bị tốt nhất để theo dõi CMB – như kính thiên văn vũ trụ Planck của ESA, cũng là không đủ quan sát hiệu ứng ấy. Vậy nên, 2 nhóm nghiên cứu do tiến sĩ Hideki Tanimura và Anna de Graaff buộc phải đưa ra một giải pháp khác.

Họ chọn ra các cặp thiên hà, dự đoán nơi các sợi khí có thể xuất hiện trên bản đồ CMB, sau đó gộp các tín hiệu lại với nhau. Kết quả, họ thu được hơn 1 triệu tín hiệu như vậy.

Theo tiến sĩ Tanimura, nghiên cứu của ông chỉ ra rằng khoảng không gian giữa các ngân hà có mật độ dày hơn chúng ta tưởng. Trong đó, lượng khí nóng ở đây có mật độ cao hơn gấp 3 lần so với mật độ vật chất thường trung bình có trong vũ trụ. Thậm chí, con số còn lên đến 6 lần trong nghiên cứu của Graff.

Khoảng không gian giữa các ngân hà có mật độ dày hơn chúng ta tưởng.

“Sự khác biệt này nằm trong khoảng dự đoán, vì chúng tôi xem xét các dữ liệu ở những khoảng cách khác nhau” – Tanimura chia sẻ. “Nếu các yếu tố này được tính đến, tôi tin rằng kết quả chúng tôi thu được sẽ rất trùng khớp”.

“Sau tất cả, một trong những vật chất bí ẩn của vũ trụ đã được giải mã”.


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