Nghĩa địa của những tàu vũ trụ rơi xuống Trái Đất

Nghĩa địa của những tàu vũ trụ rơi xuống Trái Đất


Trạm Thiên Cung 1 của Trung Quốc sẽ không rơi xuống nghĩa địa chôn xác phần lớn tàu vũ trụ và vệ tinh từng bay lên quỹ đạo Trái Đất.

Các nhà thám hiểm và phiêu lưu mạo hiểm thường tìm kiếm những địa điểm mới để tiếp cận, chinh phục những đỉnh núi cao nhất, đi tới vùng cực xa xôi nhất, vượt qua những đại dương và sa mạc mênh mông. Một số địa điểm trong số đó được gọi là cực bất khả tiếp cận và hai cực bất khả tiếp cận đặc biệt thú vị, theo BBC.

Cực bất khả tiếp cận trên lục địa là địa điểm trên Trái Đất ở xa đại dương nhất. Có một số tranh cãi về vị trí chính xác nhưng nhiều người cho rằng nó nằm gần Dzungarian Gate, ngọn núi vắt qua giữa Trung Quốc và Trung Á.

Địa điểm còn lại là nơi cách xa đất liền nhất trên đại dương, nằm ở Nam Thái Bình Dương cách quần đảo Pitcairn 2.700km về phía nam, tại vùng biển nằm giữa Australia, New Zealand và Nam Mỹ.

Cực bất khả tiếp cận trên đại dương trông chỉ là mục tiêu hấp dẫn với các nhà thám hiểm mà còn thu hút sự quan tâm của những chuyên gia điều khiển vệ tinh bởi đó là nơi phần lớn vệ tinh trên quỹ đạo quanh Trái Đất sẽ rơi xuống.

Nghĩa địa của những tàu vũ trụ rơi xuống Trái Đất

Trạm Thiên Cung 1 của Trung Quốc trên quỹ đạo Trái Đất. (Ảnh: BBC).

Các vệ tinh nhỏ sẽ bốc cháy, trong khi những mảnh vỡ lớn hơn có thể đáp xuống bề mặt Trái Đất. Để tránh đâm vào khu vực có người ở, chúng được hướng tới cực bất khả tiếp cận trên đại dương. Địa điểm trải rộng trên khu vực rộng khoảng 1.500km2 ở đáy đại dương này là nghĩa địa của các vệ tinh. Trong lần tính gần nhất, có hơn 260 vệ tinh rơi ở đây, chủ yếu của Nga.

Xác trạm vũ trụ Mir nằm ở đây. Trạm được phóng năm 1986, từng đón nhiều đoàn phi hành gia và khách quốc tế tới thăm. Với tổng trọng lượng 120 tấn, trạm Mir không thể cháy hết hoàn toàn trong khí quyển, do đó nó được phóng xuống khu vực nghĩa địa vào năm 2001. Một số ngư dân thậm chí trông thấy một mảnh vỡ lớn bốc cháy bay vụt qua bầu trời.

Nhiều lần trong năm, khoang chở hàng cho Trạm Vũ trụ Quốc tế (ISS) bốc cháy trong khu vực này, thiêu đốt rác thải của trạm. Không ai gặp nguy hiểm bởi việc bay trở lại khí quyển Trái Đất được kiểm soát. Khu vực không có hoạt động đánh bắt cá do các dòng hải lưu không đi qua đây và không mang đến các dưỡng chất nên sinh vật biển rất hiếm gặp.

Một “vị khách” tương lai sẽ yên nghỉ ở nơi hoàng tàn này là trạm ISS. Theo kế hoạch hiện tại, trạm sẽ ngừng hoạt động trong thập kỷ tới và cần được đưa xuống điểm bất khả tiếp cận trên đại dương một cách cẩn thận. Do trạm ISS nặng 450 tấn, gấp 4 lần trạm vũ trụ Mir, đây sẽ là một chuyến bay ấn tượng.

Tuy nhiên, đôi khi điều khiển một vệ tinh hoặc trạm vũ trụ rơi xuống Nam Thái Bình Dương là việc bất khả thi nếu kiểm soát viên trên mặt đất mất liên lạc với phương tiện. Điều tương tự từng xảy ra với trạm vũ trụ Salyut 7 36 tấn năm 1991 tiếp đất ở Nam Mỹ hoặc trạm Skylab đâm xuống Australia năm 1979. Không có cư dân nào trên mặt đất bị thương và trên thực tế, chưa có trường hợp nào bị mảnh vỡ tàu vũ trụ rơi trúng.

Vào khoảng giữa tháng 1 và tháng 4/2018, trạm vũ trụ Thiên Cung 1 của Trung Quốc sẽ rơi trở lại Trái Đất. Đây là trạm vũ trụ đầu tiên của Trung Quốc phóng vào năm 2011. Liu Yang, nữ phi hành gia đầu tiên của Trung Quốc, đã bay lên trạm Thiên Cung sau đó một năm. Hiện nay, quỹ đạo của trạm Thiên Cung 1 đang hạ thấp dần trước khi rơi qua khí quyển Trái Đất. Nhưng các kỹ sư Trung Quốc đã mất kiểm soát đối với trạm và không thể khởi động động cơ đẩy để trạm rơi chính xác xuống Nam Thái Bình Dương. Thay vào đó, trạm Thiên Cung 1 sẽ rơi xuống trong khoảng 42,8 độ vĩ bắc và vĩ nam, giữa bắc Tây Ban Nha và nam Australia.


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