Nghiên cứu mới giúp phát hiện sự sống ngoài Hệ Mặt trời

Nghiên cứu mới giúp phát hiện sự sống ngoài Hệ Mặt trời


Tạp chí Austrophysical (Vật lý Thiên văn) của Mỹ vừa công bố kết quả nghiên cứu của các nhà khoa học thuộc Cơ quan Hàng không Vũ trụ Mỹ (NASA) về một mô hình mới giúp rút bớt thời gian xác định các hành tinh ngoài hệ Mặt Trời có khả năng tồn tại sự sống.

Chuyên gia Yuka Fujii đang làm việc tại Viện Nghiên cứu Vũ trụ Goddard, NASA, Trưởng nhóm nghiên cứu, cho biết sử dụng một mô hình mô phỏng thực tế các điều kiện khí quyển, nhóm của ông đã phát hiện ra một quy trình mới kiểm soát sự sống của các hành tinh ngoài hệ Mặt Trời, từ đó giúp xác định các hành tinh tiềm năng cần được tập trung nghiên cứu sâu hơn.

Các nghiên cứu trước đây thường phải dựa vào mô hình một chiều và theo phương thẳng đứng để mô phỏng điều kiện khí quyển. Theo NASA, nghiên cứu mới sử dụng mô hình tính toán các điều kiện trong cả không gian ba chiều, cho phép các nhà khoa học mô phỏng được sự lưu thông khí quyển và những đặc điểm đặc biệt của lưu thông, mà các mô hình không gian một chiều không thể làm được.

Nghiên cứu mới giúp phát hiện sự sống ngoài Hệ Mặt trời

Các chuyên gia cho biết nước ở dạng lỏng cực kỳ quan trọng cho sự sống.

Các chuyên gia cho biết nước ở dạng lỏng cực kỳ quan trọng cho sự sống. Nếu nhiệt độ ở một khu vực chưa được biết đến cho phép nước ở thể lỏng hiện hữu trong thời gian đủ dài để sự sống có thể phát triển, thì nơi đó có tiềm năng cho sự sống.

Nếu một hành tinh ở cách quá xa ngôi sao của nó, nước bề mặt trên hành tinh sẽ đóng băng, nếu ở khoáng cách quá gần thì nước bề mặt sẽ bốc hơi vào vũ trụ. Điều này xảy ra khi hơi nước tăng lên ở tầng trên của bầu khí quyển gọi là tầng bình lưu và dẫn tới sự phá vỡ các nguyên tử cấu thành gồm hydrogen và oxygen dưới tác động của tia cực tím từ ngôi sao. Sau đó các nguyên tử hydrogen cực nhẹ có thể sẽ bay vào vũ trụ. Hành tinh đang trong quá trình bị mất các đại dương theo cách trên được xác định đi vào trạng thái nhà kính ẩm ướt do tầng bình lưu ẩm ướt trên bề mặt.

Đối với những hành tinh ngoài hệ Mặt Trời quay quanh các ngôi sao mẹ, nhóm nghiên cứu đã phát hiện nhiệt lượng từ tia hồng ngoại (NIR) từ quá trình này có thể làm tăng độ ẩm trong tầng bình lưu theo thời gian. Chính vì vậy, có khả năng các hành tinh ngoài hệ Mặt Trời gần ngôi sao mẹ có thể có sự sống. Đây chính là một phát hiện mới khác biệt hoàn toàn so với các phát hiện theo mô hình cũ.

Theo các nhà khoa học, phương pháp nghiên cứu mới chỉ ra kể từ khi các ngôi sao mẹ phát ra lượng ánh sáng lớn theo các bước sóng NIR, tình trạng nhà kính ẩm ướt sẽ cho ra điều kiện khí hậu giống nóng hơn vùng nhiệt đới tại Trái Đất.

Nhóm nghiên cứu cho biết thêm, trong tương lai sẽ thay đổi những đặc tính hành tinh như trọng lực, kích thước, thành phần khí quyển và áp lực bề mặt để xem chúng ảnh hưởng như thế nào đến sự tuần hoàn và khả năng lưu thông của hơi nước.


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