Vi khuẩn trong vũ trụ đang khiến phi hành gia gặp nguy hiểm

Vi khuẩn trong vũ trụ đang khiến phi hành gia gặp nguy hiểm


Vũ trụ là một môi trường vô cùng khắc nghiệt. Và trong điều kiện ấy, vi khuẩn có những hiệu ứng rất khác, và điều này đang khiến các nhà du hành vũ trụ phải lo ngại.


Ai cũng biết, du hành vũ trụ không phải là một chuyến đi chơi. Đối với những nhiệm vụ dài hạn, các phi hành gia phải đối diện với muôn vàn hiểm nguy đến từ bức xạ Mặt trời, thiên thạch, rác vũ trụ… chưa tính đến điều kiện môi trường vô cùng khắc nghiệt.

Và trong đó, có cả những nguy cơ đến từ chính Trái đất của chúng ta.

Cụ thể hơn, mối nguy ấy chính là các vi khuẩn tưởng như vô hại hoặc không quá nguy hiểm, đã theo chân các nhà du hành lên tận vũ trụ. Theo như một nghiên cứu mới đây từ ĐH Colorado Boulder (Mỹ), vi khuẩn khi vào vũ trụ có thể thay đổi hình dạng theo cách “không ngờ nhất”, giúp chúng chống chịu tốt hơn với phần lớn thuốc kháng sinh ngày nay.

Vi khuẩn trong vũ trụ đang khiến phi hành gia gặp nguy hiểm

Vi khuẩn khi vào vũ trụ có thể thay đổi hình dạng theo cách “không ngờ nhất”, giúp chúng chống chịu tốt hơn với thuốc kháng sinh.

Nghiên cứu lần này được công bố trên tạp chí khoa học Frontiers in Microbiology. Theo đó, các chuyên gia đã gửi mẫu vi khuẩn E. Coli (khuẩn ký sinh đường ruột rất phổ biến) lên trạm vũ trụ Quốc tế ISS. Họ cho vi khuẩn này tiếp xúc với gentamicin sulfate – chất kháng sinh có thể tiêu diệt chúng rất dễ dàng dưới Trái đất.

Nhưng các thí nghiệm cho thấy, lượng E. Coli phiên bản ngoài vũ trụ còn sót lại nhiều gấp 13 lần so với thí nghiệm tương tự dưới Trái đất. Hơn nữa, kích cỡ tế bào nhỏ hơn tới 63%.

“Ở môi trường ngoài vũ trụ, chúng ta biết rằng vi khuẩn sẽ có phản ứng rất khác, vậy nên cần kháng sinh với nồng độ cao hơn để xử lý chúng” – Luis Zea, tác giả nghiên cứu cho biết.

“Nhưng đây là lần đầu tiên chúng ta phân tích sự thay đổi về ngoại hình của vi khuẩn đối với môi trường vũ trụ”.

Khi không có trọng lực, vi khuẩn không còn dễ dàng tiếp cận các chất dinh dưỡng nữa. Chúng buộc phải thu nhỏ lại, khiến bề mặt nhỏ hơn để giảm tỉ lệ tiếp xúc với kháng sinh. Các tế bào cũng tăng độ dày, hình thành các túi khí để thuận tiện hơn cho việc truyền tín hiệu. Ngoài ra, chúng tụ thành nhóm, nhằm tạo thành tấm khiên bảo vệ các tế bào bên trong.

“Tất cả đã giúp cơ chế kháng thuốc của chúng mạnh hơn” – Zea chia sẻ. “Và thí nghiệm này cũng đem đến cho chúng ta cơ hội hiểu rõ cách thức hình thành kháng thể của vi khuẩn trên Trái đất”.

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Vũ trụ là một nơi có rất nhiều hiểm nguy.

Hình thức kết hợp nhóm của E. Coli có thể liên hệ với cơ chế hình thành màng sinh học của nhiều loại vi khuẩn trên Trái đất. Đây là thuật ngữ ám chỉ việc các tế bào vi khuẩn kết hợp với nhau nhờ màng nhầy bên ngoài, ví dụ như các mảng bám trên răng, hoặc nguy hiểm hơn là khuẩn lao.

Theo Zea, nghiên cứu lần này sẽ giúp ích rất nhiều cho các nhiệm vụ du hành sau này. Các nhà khoa học cần đưa ra phương pháp điều trị tốt hơn với các chứng bệnh hình thành do vi khuẩn trên vũ trụ. Và nếu xử lý được, phương pháp ấy cũng sẽ áp dụng được ở trên Trái đất một cách hiệu quả.


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