7 vai trò không thể thay thế của băng biển Bắc Cực

7 vai trò không thể thay thế của băng biển Bắc Cực


Băng biển Bắc Cực điều hòa khí hậu Trái Đất qua hoàn lưu khí quyển và dòng hải lưu, cung cấp môi trường sống cho con người và động vật.


Hiện tượng khí hậu ấm lên toàn cầu đang khiến băng ở các vùng cực tan chảy với tốc độ nhanh chưa từng thấy. Các nhà khoa học cho rằng điều này sẽ ảnh hưởng rất lớn đến môi trường trên Trái Đất, bởi băng ở Bắc Cực có những vai trò vô cùng quan trọng không thể thay thế.

Phản xạ ánh sáng Mặt trời

7 vai trò không thể thay thế của băng biển Bắc Cực

Góc chiếu của ánh sáng Mặt Trời kết hợp với albedo từ băng biển giúp giữ cho vùng cực luôn lạnh. (Ảnh: NASA).

Vùng cực của Trái Đất có nhiệt độ lạnh vì nhận được ít ánh nắng Mặt Trời trực tiếp hơn so với nơi có vĩ độ thấp. Nguyên nhân khác là do những khối băng khổng lồ màu trắng có tác dụng như tấm gương phản xạ hầu hết ánh sáng Mặt Trời trở lại không gian, theo Mother Nature Network. Sự phản xạ này được gọi là albedo, giúp giữ cho hai cực lạnh bằng cách hạn chế khả năng hấp thụ nhiệt của chúng.

Diện tích băng biển Bắc Cực thu hẹp sẽ làm lộ ra nhiều nước biển hơn. Đại dương hấp thụ nhiều nhiệt hơn, khiến băng tan chảy và albedo bị giảm xuống. Điều này tạo ra một vòng luẩn quẩn khiến nhiệt độ Trái Đất ngày càng nóng lên.

Ảnh hưởng đến dòng hải lưu

Bằng cách điều hòa nhiệt độ vùng cực, băng Bắc Cực có ảnh hưởng đến thời tiết trên toàn thế giới. Đại dương và không khí hoạt động như động cơ nhiệt, vận chuyển nhiệt đến các cực một cách thường xuyên thông qua hoàn lưu khí quyển và dòng hải lưu để tạo ra sự cân bằng.

Băng biển ảnh hưởng đến thời tiết trên toàn thế giới thông qua hoàn lưu khí quyển và dòng hải lưu. (Ảnh: NASA).

Diện tích băng biển giảm xuống ảnh hưởng đến những quá trình này. Nhiệt độ vùng cực ấm lên phá vỡ lưu lượng nhiệt tổng thể của Trái Đất, trong khi hướng gió thay đổi đẩy nhiều băng hơn từ biển Bắc Cực về phía Đại Tây Dương. Tại đây, chúng sẽ tan thành nước lạnh và ngăn cản dòng hải lưu ấm lưu chuyển từ vùng nhiệt đới.

Cách nhiệt với không khí

Nước biển ở Bắc Băng Dương tuy rất lạnh nhưng vẫn ấm hơn không khí trong mùa đông. Băng hoạt động như một lớp cách nhiệt giữa nước biển và không khí, hạn chế lượng nhiệt thoát ra. Cùng với albedo, đây là một cách khác giúp băng biển duy trì khí hậu lạnh giá của Bắc Cực.

Băng tan chảy hoặc có nhiều vết nứt sẽ hình thành khoảng trống, cho phép nhiệt thoát ra từ nước biển vào không khí. Khoảng một nửa tổng lượng nhiệt trao đổi giữa Bắc Băng Dương và khí quyển xảy ra thông qua các khe hở trên băng, theo Trung tâm Dữ liệu Băng tuyết Quốc gia Mỹ (NSIDC).

Hạn chế methane giải phóng vào khí quyển

Giới khoa học từ lâu biết rằng vùng lãnh nguyên Bắc Cực chứa các mỏ khí methane đông lạnh lớn. Năm 2012, các nhà nghiên cứu tại Phòng thí nghiệm Động cơ phản lực của Cơ quan Hàng không Vũ trụ Mỹ (NASA) phát hiện một nguồn phát thải khí methane mới ở Bắc Cực, đó chính là Bắc Băng Dương.

Ở phía bắc biển Chukchi và Beaufort, các nhà khoa học phát hiện khí methane bốc lên, nhưng chúng không xuất phát từ các nguồn thải thông thường như đất ngập nước, hồ chứa hoặc cơ sở công nghiệp. Họ không chắc lý do tại sao có khí methane trong nước biển ở Bắc Cực, nhưng nhiều khả năng là do vi khuẩn và trầm tích đáy biển.

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Các lỗ hổng và khe nứt trên băng có thể giải phóng khí methane từ Bắc Băng Dương vào khí quyển. (Ảnh: iStock).

Băng trên biển giống như một bề mặt ngăn cách không cho khí methane trong nước biển giải phóng vào không khí. “Khi diện tích lớp băng ở Bắc Cực tiếp tục giảm do khí hậu ấm lên, nguồn khí methane này có thể tăng lên”, Eric Kort, nhà nghiên cứu tại NASA, cho biết.

Giảm thiểu thời tiết khắc nghiệt

Theo NSIDC, mất băng biển là tác nhân tạo ra các cơn bão lớn ở Bắc Cực. Băng biển hạn chế lượng hơi nước bốc lên từ đại dương vào khí quyển, khiến bão mạnh khó hình thành và phát triển hơn. Khi băng biển sụt giảm, quá trình hình thành bão dễ dàng hơn và sóng biển lớn có thể gây xói mòn bờ biển.

Hỗ trợ cuộc sống của người bản địa

Nhiều người sống ở Bắc Cực chủ yếu săn bắt hải cẩu và các loài động vật bản địa khác để làm thức ăn. Diện tích băng biển giảm xuống khiến việc đi săn ngày càng khó khăn và nguy hiểm hơn.

Ở ngoài khơi, băng biển giảm lại được xem là tin tốt cho ngành công nghiệp khai thác dầu mỏ, khí đốt và hàng hải. Tuy nhiên, sự gia tăng các hoạt động này có thể gây ra những rủi ro riêng, chẳng hạn như tình trạng cá voi chết hàng loạt do sự cố tràn dầu trên biển.
Môi trường sống của động vật hoang dã

Dù Bắc Cực là một trong những nơi có khí hậu khắc nghiệt nhất trên Trái Đất, nơi đây vẫn có nhiều động vật hoang dã sinh sống như gấu trắng, hải cẩu, cú tuyết, cáo, thỏ Bắc cực…Hiện tượng nóng lên toàn cầu đang làm tan chảy nhiều băng hơn, khiến một số loài động vật mất môi trường sống và thiếu thức ăn, dẫn đến nguy cơ bị tuyệt chủng.


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