Dung nham là gì? Cùng MysTown tìm hiểu về dung nham

Dung nham là gì? Cùng MysTown tìm hiểu về dung nham


Thuật ngữ dung nham được Francesco Serao sử dụng đầu tiên khi viết về phun trào magma của Vesuvius từ 14 tháng 5 đến 4 tháng 6 năm 1737. Serao đã mô tả một dòng dung nham sọc giống như dòng nước và bùn sau các trận mưa lớn.

Dung nham là gì?

“Dung nham” là đá nóng chảy trào ra từ núi lửa trong quá trình phun trào. Khi phun trào từ núi lửa, nó ở thể lỏng ở nhiệt độ khoảng 700°C đến 1.200°C (1.300°F đến 2.200 °F). Mặc dù, dung nham khá nhớt, cao hơn nước khoảng 100.000 lần, nó có thể chảy trên một quãng đường dài trước khi đông nguội thành đá, do các đặc điểm thixotropic và shear thinning của nó.

Dòng dung nham là dòng chảy của dung nham, được tạo ra trong quá trình phun trào êm đềm. Khi ngừng chảy, dung nham hóa rắn tạo thành đá mắc ma phun trào.

Dung nham là gì? Cùng MysTown tìm hiểu về dung nham
Thành phần của dung nham sẽ quyết định tính chất của nó hơn là nhiệt độ khi phun trào.

Thành phần trong các loại dung nham là gì?

Nhìn chung, thành phần của dung nham sẽ quyết định tính chất của nó hơn là nhiệt độ khi phun trào. Các đá mắc ma được hình thành từ dung nham có thể được phân loại theo 3 nhóm dựa trên thành phần hóa học: felsic, trung gian, và mafic

Dung nham felsic như ryolit và dacit đặc biệt hình thành từ lava spine, lava dome hay “coulees” (là dung nham dày và ngắn) và liên quan với các trầm tích mảnh vụn. Hầu hết các dòng dung nham felsic đều có độ nhớt rất cao, và đặc biệt là các mảnh vụn khi chúng phun trào, tạo ra các dăm kết dạng khối.

Dung nham trung gian hay andesit có ít nhôm và silica và thường có nhiều magiê và sắt. Dung nham trung gian tạo thành các vòm andesit và dung nham khối, thường tạo thành các bậc của núi lửa hỗn hợp như ở Andes.

Dung nham mafic hay dung nham bazan đặc trưng bởi hàm lượng sắt, và magiê cao, và nhiệt độ khi phun trào thường trên 950°C. Mắc ma bazan có sắt và magiê cao còn nhôm và silica tương đối thấp, chúng làm giảm mức độ polyme hóa ở trạng thái nóng chảy.

Dung nham siêu mafic như komatiit có hàm lượng mắc ma magiê cao tạo thành boninit có nhiệt độ phun trào cực kỳ cao. Komatiit chứa hơn 18% magiê ôxít, và nhiệt độ khi phun trào khoảng 1.600°C.


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