Quy trình tiêm thuốc độc cho tử tù

Quy trình tiêm thuốc độc cho tử tù


So với những hình thức thi hành án tử trong lịch sử như treo cổ, xử bắn… thì tử hình bằng thuốc độc xuất hiện khá muộn, hiện được nhiều quốc gia áp dụng, đặc biệt là Mỹ.

Tử hình bằng thuốc độc có từ khi nào?

Hình thức tử hình này xuất hiện lần đầu tiên vào năm 1982 ở Mỹ, sau đó là Trung Quốc năm 1997 và một số quốc gia khác như Thái Lan (2003), Guatemala (1996), Maldives và Việt Nam (2013), Guatemala (đã hủy bỏ năm 2000) và Philippines (1999 nhưng đã bỏ năm 2006).

Quy trình tiêm thuốc độc cho tử tù

Mỹ là quốc gia đầu tiên áp dụng phương pháp này. (Ảnh Imago/blicwinkel).

Trong đó, Mỹ là quốc gia sử dụng phương pháp này nhiều nhất, chỉ năm 2004 đến 2006, gần như toàn bộ hình thức tử hình đều là sử dụng cách này.

Sở dĩ hình thức này phổ biến ở Mỹ là do ngày 17/01/1888 một bác sĩ người Mỹ tên là Julius Mount Bleyer đưa ra vì hình thức này có chi phí rẻ hơn các hình thức tử hình khác.

Ngày 11/5/1977 bang Oklahoma là tiểu bang đầu tiên áp dụng thử nghiệm phương pháp xử lý tử tù theo cách này khi người kiểm tra y học Jay Chapman đưa ra nghi thức được biết đến là nghi thức Chapman để làm nạn nhân chết một cách nhanh chóng.

Đến năm 2004 thì phương thức này gần như phổ biến ở hầu hết các tiểu bang, trong khi đó EU đã ban lệnh cấm sử dụng hình thức này năm 2011.

Quy trình tiêm thuốc độc vào tử tù và các loại chất tiêm vào người nạn nhân

fanfPke

Tử từ được cố định trên băng ca. (Ảnh MyAJC.com).

Thông thường ở Mỹ, tử tù sẽ bị tiêm thuốc độc bằng tay (từng có thời gian máy móc thực hiện việc này nhưng đã bị hủy bỏ vì dễ thất bại hơn). Chất độc được tiêm vào thường gồm 3 giai đoạn:

  • Giai đoạn 1: 5g Pentothol (sodium thiopental) là một loại thuốc gây tê toàn thân barbiturat có thời gian tác dụng ngắn giải phóng nhanh chóng, tương tự như thiobarbital.
  • Giai đoạn 2: 100mg Pavulon (pancuronium bromide) khiến cơ thể nạn nhân bại liệt.
  • Giai đoạn 3: 100 mEq potassium chloride khiến tim ngừng đập.

Các chất độc trên thông thường sẽ được tiêm vào tĩnh mạch mỗi tay (nhưng thường chỉ cần tiêm vào 1 tay, tay kia chỉ là trường hợp đề phòng nếu gặp thất bại), nạn nhân bị giữ cố định trên băng ca và chất độc sẽ ngấm rất nhanh và gần như gây ra cái chết ngay lập tức.


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