Trộm mộ 1.700 năm trước phát hiện cuốn sử vĩ đại sánh ngang ‘Sử ký’ Tư Mã Thiên

Trộm mộ 1.700 năm trước phát hiện cuốn sử vĩ đại sánh ngang ‘Sử ký’ Tư Mã Thiên


Trộm mộ 1.700 năm trước phát hiện cuốn sử vĩ đại sánh ngang ‘Sử ký’ Tư Mã Thiên

Vì sao một cuốn sử cũ bị thất lạc hàng nghìn năm lại ẩn chứa nhiều bí ẩn lịch sử bị chôn vùi đến vậy?

Sự thật lịch sử theo thời gian bị lãng quên và vùi lấp cùng với cái chết của nhân vật chính. Người đời sau muốn hiểu lịch sử thì chỉ có thể tìm kiếm trong các điển tịch. Lịch sử hàng ngàn năm của Trung Hoa đã chứng kiến sự giao thời của biết bao triều đại, những cuộc chuyển giao quyền lực chính trị, những nhân vật lịch sử lẫy lừng, những nỗi hàm oan khó rửa… Tất cả được tóm gọn trong công trình sử học lớn nhất của Trung Hoa, cũng là một trong những cuốn biên niên sử nổi tiếng nhất thế giới: “Sử ký” – Tư Mã Thiên.

Chính sử có phải đều đúng?

“Sử ký” dùng phương pháp tường thuật ký sự. Nội dung vô cùng phong phú, ghi lại lịch sử Trung Hoa suốt hơn 2.500 năm, từ thời đại Hoàng Đế huyền thoại thời thượng cổ cho đến Hán Vũ Đế năm thứ tư. Người Trung Quốc coi “Sử ký” là tác phẩm văn xuôi nổi tiếng và đồ sộ nhất trong nền văn học cổ nước này. Nhiều học giả và độc giả cũng coi đây là một kho tài liệu vô giá, chính xác và có giá trị tổng hợp cao. Nhưng liệu tất cả các sự kiện được đề cập trong “Sử ký” đều đúng sự thật? Câu trả lời là không.

Nguyên nhân bởi tác giả Tư Mã Thiên chưa từng chứng kiến hay trải nghiệm qua tất cả các giai đoạn lịch sử mà ông viết. Tài liệu mà Tư Mã Thiên dựa vào để viết “Sử ký” là từ các cuốn sử ký của các triều đại khác, đồng thời tổng hợp những câu chuyện lưu truyền trong dân gian. Tài liệu lúc bấy giờ ông sử dụng phần lớn bắt nguồn từ việc truyền miệng. Do đó, về một phương diện nào đó mà nói, nội dung trong “Sử ký” không hẳn tất cả đều chân thực.

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Liệu có phải tất cả các sự kiện được đề cập trong “Sử ký” đều đúng sự thật? (Ảnh: iSach.info)

Trộm mộ bất ngờ phát hiện cuốn dã sử đặc biệt

Triều đại Tây Tấn (266 – 316) xuất hiện một cuốn sách sử có nội dung khác biệt so với “Sử ký”, đó là “Trúc thư kỷ niên”. Nghĩa đen của nó là “Biên niên sử viết trên thẻ tre”. Qua nghiên cứu, chỉnh lý, các nhà học giả cho biết “Trúc thư kỷ niên” là sách sử nước Ngụy thời Chiến Quốc, chép sự kiện từ thời Hoàng Đế tới tận năm 299 TCN.

Bản gốc “Trúc thư kỉ niên” được chôn cùng với vua Ngụy Tương vương (chết năm 296 TCN), chôn ở huyện Cấp (nay là thành phố Vệ Huy, tỉnh Hà Nam). Nó được phát hiện vào năm 281 thời Tấn Vũ Đế. Cùng với “Sử ký”, “Trúc thư kỉ niên” chính là văn bản cổ quan trọng nhất về Trung Hoa buổi sơ khai. Việc khám phá ra “Trúc Thư Kỷ Niên” cũng là một câu chuyện truyền kỳ đặc sắc.

Tương truyền, đầu những năm Tây Tấn, có một kẻ trộm mộ tên là Bất Chuẩn, lén trộm một ngôi mộ cổ ở huyện Cát Cáp, tỉnh Hà Nam. Sau khi mở nắp, vì bên trong tối đen nên Bất Chuẩn đốt cây đuốc nhỏ mang theo người để soi sáng. Tuy vậy hắn vô cùng thất vọng vì bên trong không có châu báu, vàng bạc mà chỉ là những cuốn sách viết trên thẻ trúc cũ kĩ. Đối với hắn những cuốn sách này hẳn là vô giá trị. Bất Chuẩn đem những thứ có giá trị trong mộ đi, còn những quyển sách thì bỏ lại trong mộ.

Sau đó, dân làng phát hiện ra ngôi mộ bị mở nắp, bên trong là những cuốn sách vứt chỏng chơ nên đã báo cho quan phủ. Một số quan viên đến nhìn thấy nội dung bên trong các cuốn sách này là những hàng chữ chỉnh tề, đoán rằng có lẽ đó là những ghi chép do người cổ đại để lại nên không dám tự quyết. Họ điều xe thồ đến chở số sách này về kinh sư ở Lạc Dương.

Sau khi số sách này được đưa về Lạc Dương, Tấn Vũ Đế nghe nói đây là sách được khai quật từ trong mộ cổ liền lệnh cho người nghiên cứu kỹ lưỡng. Các học giả thời cổ đại Tây Tấn khám phá ra rằng, những cuốn sách viết trên thẻ trúc này đã ghi lại tất cả điển tích của triều đại nước Ngụy thời Chiến Quốc. Về sau chúng được chỉnh lý lại thành sách sử lấy tên là “Trúc thư kỷ niên”, nội dung ghi lại rất nhiều chuyện kinh thiên động địa.

 
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“Trúc thư kỷ niên”. Nghĩa đen của nó là “Biên niên sử viết trên thẻ tre”.(Ảnh minh họa : vi.wikipedia.org)

Sự khác biệt với chính sử “Sử Ký”

Về hiền tướng triều Thương, Y Doãn

“Sử ký” ghi chép Y Doãn là vị hiền tướng đầu tiên trong lịch sử Trung Quốc. Thái Giáp nhà Thương sau khi thừa kế ngôi vị không nghe theo lời khuyên nhủ của Y Doãn, làm nhiều chuyện hồ đồ nên bị Y Doãn giam lại để thức tỉnh. Sau đó Thái Giáp thay đổi, Y Doãn lại đón ngài trở về hoàng thành, còn phò tá Thái Giáp.

Nhưng trong “Trúc thư kỷ niên” lại ghi rằng: Y Doãn hãm hại Thái Giáp, đoạt lấy vương quyền rồi 7 năm sau bị Thái Giáp trở về hạ sát. Ấu chủ lên ngôi bị đại thần khống chế, áp bức. Việc ghi chép về chân dung một nhân vật ở hai cuốn biên niên sử này hoàn toàn khác biệt, một bên khắc họa một công thần vô tư như Thánh nhân, một bên lại là gian thần mưu quyền đoạt lợi.

Về “Thời kỳ Cộng hoà”

“Sử ký” ghi chép, “Thời kỳ Cộng hòa” trong lịch sử cổ đại Trung Quốc là khoảng thời gian ngắn thời Tây Chu không có vua cầm quyền. Vua nhà Tây Chu là Chu Lệ Vương vì bạo ngược với dân chúng nên bị người dân nổi dậy lật đổ, phải sống lưu vong. Hai đại thần Chu Công và Triệu Công cùng đứng ra quản lý việc triều chính. Nhưng “Trúc thư kỷ niên” lại ghi rằng “Cộng Bá Hòa hành thiên tử chi chính”, có nghĩa là có một nhân vật tên là Cộng Bá Hòa được cử thay mặt Thiên tử hành sự.

Muội Hỷ thất sủng

Sử sách chép việc vua Hạ Kiệt sủng ái Muội Hỷ, làm việc thất đức đến nỗi mất nước. Về sau, Muội Hỷ cùng Kiệt chạy ra Nam Sào. Nhưng “Trúc thư kỷ niên” lại ghi chép khác: Hạ Kiệt mang quân chinh phạt đất Manh Sơn. Manh Sơn dâng 2 người con gái đẹp là Uyển và Viêm để xin Kiệt lui quân. Hạ Kiệt bằng lòng, sủng ái hai người ấy mà lạnh nhạt với nàng Muội Hỷ. Muội Hỷ bị thất sủng nên oán hận Kiệt. Điều này đã bị Y Doãn khai thác để nắm tình hình nhà Hạ.

Minh họa Hạ Kiệt và Muội Hỉ tranh vẽ thời nhà Thanh. (Ảnh: vi.wikipedia.org)

Vua Vũ nhà Hạ truyền ngôi cho con là Khải

Chính sử nhắc tới việc Cao Dao được Hạ Vũ chọn kế vị nhưng mất sớm. Do đó con của Cao Dao là Ích được chọn để truyền ngôi. Tuy nhiên, nhiều người cho rằng con của Hạ Vũ là Khải xứng đáng hơn nên quyết định ngôi vua thuộc về Khải. Trong chính sử, cuộc chuyển giao quyền lực này khá êm thấm. Thế nhưng, Trúc thư kỉ niên chép rằng, giữa Khải và Ích đã nổ ra cuộc đại chiến ở Hộ Sơn. Ích định giành ngôi với Khải và bị Khải giết chết.

Khi “Trúc thư kỷ niên” xuất hiện, vì nội dung có nhiều chi tiết phản bác lại lịch sử cổ đại của Nho gia, nên bị liệt vào loại sách cấm hàng đầu. Những ghi chép trong “Trúc thư kỷ niên” và “Sử Ký” đúng hay sai là điều chúng ta không thể biết rõ. Nhưng đọc sách sử không phải chỉ là tìm hiểu những sự kiên lịch sử mà phải hiểu được hàm nghĩa trong đó, như vậy mới có thể “Lấy lịch sử làm gương, có thể phân biệt được tốt xấu”.


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