Hành tinh “siêu Trái Đất” có thể chứa sự sống

Hành tinh “siêu Trái Đất” có thể chứa sự sống

Một ngoại hành tinh ở cách 111 năm ánh sáng có thể là phiên bản lớn của Trái Đất với những điều kiện phù hợp cho sự sống.

Ngoại hành tinh xa xôi mang tên K2-18b được mô tả như một “siêu Trái Đất”tiềm năng, hành tinh đá lớn có khả năng hỗ trợ sự sống, Independent hôm qua đưa tin. K2-18b quay quanh sao chủ trong khu vực phù hợp với sự sống, có nghĩa hành tinh nhiều khả năng chứa nước lỏng trên bề mặt.

Nghiên cứu mới của các nhà thiên văn học ở Đại học Texas, Scarborough, và Đại học Montreal, Canada, được tiến hành dựa trên dữ liệu từ Đài quan sát Nam châu Âu (ESO). Họ cũng lần đầu tiên phát hiện K2-18b có một hành tinh láng giềng là K2-18c. Cả hai hành tinh đều quay quanh sao lùn đỏ K2-18, cách Trái Đất 111 năm ánh sáng trong chòm sao Leo.

Hành tinh “siêu Trái Đất” có thể chứa sự sống

Ngoại hành tinh K2-18b quay quanh sao chủ cùng với một hành tinh láng giềng. (Ảnh: NASA).

“Có thể đo khối lượng và mật độ của K2-18b là điều rất tốt. Việc khám phá ra một ngoại hành tinh mới quả là rất may mắn và thú vị”, Ryan Cloutier, trưởng nhóm nghiên cứu ở Đại học Montreal, cho biết.

Các nhà nghiên cứu muốn tìm hiểu K2-18b là hành tinh đá giống Trái Đất hay hành tinh khí như sao Hải Vương. Họ sử dụng thiết bị High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (Harps) của kính thiên văn ở ESO để phân tích K2-18b. Thiết bị này chuyên đo độ dao động của một ngôi sao, từ đó tính ra mức độ hấp dẫn của hành tinh xoay quanh.

Họ phát hình hành tinh có thể cấu tạo chủ yếu là đá với khí quyển bao quanh giống Trái Đất nhưng lớn hơn. Tuy nhiên, đây cũng có thể là hành tinh có lớp băng dày bao phủ nên cần nghiên cứu sâu hơn. K2-18b ở gần sao chủ hơn Trái Đất nên có khả năng nhiệt độ của hành tinh này cao hơn.

Nhóm nghiên cứu sẽ sử dụng kính viễn vọng vũ trụ James Webb của NASA để thăm dò khí quyển của K2-18b khi thiết bị được phóng năm 2019. “Có rất nhiều yêu cầu khi sử dụng kính viễn vọng này, do đó bạn phải rất cẩn trọng trong việc lựa chọn ngoại hành tinh để xem xét. K2-18b là một trong những mục tiêu tốt nhất để nghiên cứu khí quyển. Hành tinh xếp ở hàng đầu trong danh sách”, giáo sư René Doyon ở Đại học Montreal, đồng tác giả nghiên cứu, chia sẻ.

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