Năng lượng tối và vật chất tối không hề tồn tại như giới khoa học vẫn nghĩ

Năng lượng tối và vật chất tối không hề tồn tại như giới khoa học vẫn nghĩ


Lâu nay các nhà khoa học vẫn cho rằng thành phần chính của vũ trụ là năng lượng tối (chiếm hơn 68%) và vật chất tối (27%), còn các hành tinh và vì sao chỉ chiếm khoảng 5%. Một nghiên cứu mới cho thấy giả thuyết trên không còn đúng nữa…

Trong gần một thế kỷ qua, các nhà nghiên cứu đã giả định rằng vũ trụ chứa nhiều vật chất hơn những gì đã được quan sát trực tiếp. Loại vật chất chưa thể quan sát, yếu tố khiến các vì sao chuyển động đã được gọi tên là vật chất tối chiếm 27% vũ trụ. Ngoài ra trong vũ trụ còn một thành phần thúc đẩy quá trình tăng tốc giãn nở vũ trụ, mạnh mẽ hơn cả lực hấp dẫn, được gọi là năng lượng tối chiếm đến 68% vũ trụ.

Năng lượng tối và vật chất tối không hề tồn tại như giới khoa học vẫn nghĩ

Năng lượng tối chiếm 68% vũ trụ.

Tuy nhiên, theo một nhà nghiên cứu đến từ đại học Geneva (UNIGE) ở Thụy Sĩ thì hai khái niệm trên không còn hợp lý nữa. Nhóm này đã minh họa được các hiện tượng mà không cần đến vật chất tối và năng lượng tối. Nghiên cứu được xuất bản trên tạp chí vật lý thiên thể The Astrophysical Journal nhiều khả năng sẽ giúp chúng ta giải đáp được hai trong số các bí ẩn lớn nhất của ngành thiên văn học.

Theo Science Daily, vũ trụ và lịch sử tiến hóa được mô tả tượng trưng bằng các phương trình trong thuyết tương đối rộng của Einstein, lực hấp dẫn phổ quát của Newton và cơ học lượng tử. Mô hình vũ trụ trung tâm hiện nay là big bang và sự giãn nở (ảnh dưới).

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Big bang và sự giãn nở.

Theo giáo sư danh dự bộ môn thiên văn của UNIGE André Maeder, mô hình truyền thống trên chưa tính đến một giả thuyết khởi đầu, đó là biến thiên quy mô của không gian rỗng.

Không gian rỗng là yếu tố hình thành nên các phương trình tương đối rộng của Einstein, được biểu thị bằng một số lượng thường gọi là “hằng số vũ trụ” (cosmological constant). Trong mô hình cũ, không gian rỗng và các đặc điểm của nó sẽ không thay đổi theo sự giãn nở hay thu hẹp của vũ trụ.

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Phương trình tương đối rộng nguyên bản của Einstein. (Ảnh: UTokyo Research).

Thay đổi lại giả định không gian rỗng trong mô hình cũ từ hằng số thành biến thiên, Maeder đã xây dựng và thử nghiệm ba mô hình mới: mô hình đầu tiên dựa trên thuyết tương đối rộng của Einstein, thử nghiệm thứ hai dựa trên luật hấp dẫn của Newton (một phiên bản cụ thể của các phương trình tương đối rộng), thử nghiệm thứ ba xem xét độ phân tán tốc độ của các vì sao quay quanh Milky Way (thiên hà có trái đất của chúng ta).

Trong thử nghiệm đầu tiên dựa trên thuyết tương đối rộng, các kết quả tính toán đều phù hợp với các quan sát. Mô hình đầu cũng dự đoán được sự giãn nở đang gia tốc của vũ trụ mà không cần tới các yếu tố năng lượng tối hay năng lượng phân tử.

Tóm lại, các phương trình vật lý trong mô hình đầu tiên dựa trên thuyết tương đối rộng của Maeder đã bao gồm sự gia tốc giãn nở vũ trụ, do đó có thể thực tế không tồn tại cái gọi là năng lượng tối.
Trong mô hình thứ hai dựa trên luật hấp dẫn của Newton, áp dụng cho các cụm thiên hà, mô hình này cho thấy vô số cụm thiên hà phù hợp với vật chất thấy được, nghĩa là chúng ta có thể giải thích được tốc độ cao của các thiên hà trong các cụm thiên hà mà không cần đến vật chất tối. Luật hấp dẫn Newton đã điều chỉnh cũng dự đoán được các vì sao sẽ đạt được tốc độ cao ở các khu vực rìa ngoài thiên hà mà không cần miêu tả vật chất tối.

Trong thử nghiệm thứ ba tập trung vào độ phân tán trong tốc độ của các vì sao dao động quanh mặt phẳng Milky Way (thường gia tăng theo độ tuổi của các ngôi sao liên quan), giả thuyết không gian rỗng bất biến (không thay đổi) truyền thống đã giải thích rất tốt sự phân tán tốc độ này. Kết quả độc đáo này là điều mà trước giờ khoa học vẫn chưa thống nhất.

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Khám phá mới của Maeder sẽ mở đường cho một khái niệm mới trong thiên văn.

Khám phá mới của Maeder sẽ mở đường cho một khái niệm mới trong thiên văn, một khái niệm gây nhiều nghi vấn và tranh cãi. “Mô hình này cuối cùng đã giải quyết được hai trong những bí ẩn lớn nhất của thiên văn. Việc công bố nó vẫn đúng với tinh thần khoa học: không điều gì có thể mãi mãi là hiển nhiên, không chỉ trong các mặt kinh nghiệm, quan sát hay lý luận của con người”, giáo sư André Maeder kết luận.

Vật chất tối và năng lượng tối

Vật chất tối bắt đầu có tên trong tự điển thiên văn thế giới vào năm 1933, khi nhà thiên văn Thụy Sĩ Fritz Zwicky có một khám phá chấn động thế giới: vũ trụ có nhiều vật chất hơn những cái chúng ta đã thấy trong thực tế. Đến những năm 1970, khái niệm vật chất tối càng trở nên quan trọng hơn khi nó được nhà thiên văn Mỹ Vera Rubin dùng để giải thích sự dịch chuyển và tốc độ của các vì sao. Sau đó giới khoa học đã cống hiến nhiều nguồn lực đáng kể để xác định vật chât tối: trên không gian, mặt đất và tại CERN (Tổ chức Nghiên cứu hạt nhân châu Âu) nhưng tất cả đều không thành công. Năm 1998, thế giới lại chứng kiến khám phá chấn động thứ hai: phát hiện sự gia tốc của vũ trụ đang giãn nở từ một nhóm các nhà vật lý thiên thể Úc và Mỹ. Khám phá được gọi là năng lượng tối này đã được trao giải Nobel vật lý 2011.

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Vũ trụ có nhiều vật chất hơn những cái chúng ta đã thấy trong thực tế.

Bất chấp những nguồn lực khổng lồ đã được thực hiện nêu trên, chưa từng có lý thuyết hay quan sát nào có thể định nghĩa được loại năng lượng đen được cho là mạnh hơn cả lực hấp dẫn của Newton. Từ khi được phát hiện, vật chất đen và năng lượng tối là hai bí ẩn đã thách thức giới thiên văn trong gần một thế kỷ qua.

Trước nghiên cứu của UNIGE ở trên thì hồi tháng tư năm nay cũng đã có một nhóm nhà khoa học Hungary công bố giả thuyết mô hình vũ trụ mới không cần năng lượng tối. Giải thuyết này xem mật độ vật chất vũ trụ là khác nhau, vì vậy sự giãn nở vũ trụ cũng khác nhau. Các kết quả tính toán cũng cho thấy mô hình này phù hợp với thuyết tương đối rộng và cũng lý giải được sự giãn nở vũ trụ không có năng lượng tối.


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