Nguyên nhân khiến khủng long bị tuyệt chủng

Nguyên nhân khiến khủng long bị tuyệt chủng


Núi lửa hoạt động là nguyên nhân khiến khủng long tuyệt chủng, chứ không phải thiên thạch rơi như chúng ta từng nghĩ trước đây.

10.000 năm trước, dòng nham thạch từ Deccan Traps, một khu vực núi lửa gần Mumbai, Ấn Độ hiện nay, đã thải ra một lượng lớn sulfur và carbon dioxide vào không khí, gây ra thảm họa diệt vong bằng cách khiến trái đất nóng lên và đại dương bị axit hóa.

Phát hiện này được trình bày tại cuộc gặp thường niên của Hội địa – vật lý Mỹ, góp thêm tiếng nói và cuộc tranh luận kéo dài trong thời gian qua về nguyên nhân khiến khủng long bị tuyệt chủng 65 triệu năm trước.

Thuyết Alvarez trước đây cho rằng một thiên thạch lớn đã rơi xuống Chicxulub, Mexico, khoảng 65 triệu năm trước, giải phóng ra một lượng cát bụi và khí độc lớn vào không khí, che phủ cả mặt trời, khiến trái đất trở nên lạnh giá, hủy diệt khủng long và đầu độc các sinh vật biển. Vụ va chạm cũng có thể gây ra hiện tượng núi lửa hoạt động, động đất và sóng thần.

Năm 2009, các công ty dầu khí khi tiến hành khoan ở ngoài khơi bờ biển phía Đông Ấn Độ đã phát hiện ra một lớp trầm tích là dung nham có niên đại vài thiên niên kỷ, nằm dưới mặt nước biển 3,3km.

Gerta Keller, một nhà địa chất thuộc đại học Princeton, Mỹ và các đồng nghiệp của bà đã phát hiện ra lớp trầm tích chứa rất nhiều hóa thạch thuộc thời kỳ K-T Boundary, khi khủng long biến mất. Lớp trầm tích này có chứa các lớp dung nham từ khu vực Deccan Traps.

Nguyên nhân khiến khủng long bị tuyệt chủng

Núi lửa hoạt động là nguyên nhân khiến khủng long tuyệt chủng, chứ không phải thiên thạch rơi như chúng ta từng nghĩ trước đây.

Theo bản phân tích hóa thạch, số lượng sinh vật phù du ít hơn, nhỏ hơn, số lượng vỏ động vật còn lưu giữ lại trên lớp dung nham cũng ít hơn. Điều này cho thấy sinh vật phải biến đổi sau khi núi lửa hoạt động. Hầu hết sinh vật dần dần chết di. Duy chỉ có một loại sinh vật phù du có tên Guemnilitria – là được tìm thấy nhiều trong các mẫu hóa thạch.

Guembilitria có thể là loài sinh vật phổ biến nhất trên thế giới khi một lượng lớn khí sulfur tràn lan trong nước biển. Khí này có thể kết hợp với calcium, khiến các loài sinh vật biển không thể lấy calcium để tổng hợp nên vỏ và xương.

Cùng thời điểm đó, những mẫu hóa thạch tại Ấn Độ cũng cho thấy một số lượng lớn cây cối và động vật trên mặt đất đã biến mất. Điều này cho thấy chính những ngọn núi lửa đã gây ra hoặc diệt vong trên cả mặt đất và trên biển.

Nhóm nghiên cứu cũng tìm thấy bằng chứng làm dấy lên mối ngờ vực về giả thuyết thiên thạch va vào trái đất gây nên họa tuyệt chủng.

“Vụ va chạm của thiên thạch không thể sản sinh ra đủ lượng khí sulfur và carbon dioxide mà ta có thể quan sát được trên các phiến đá, vì vậy vụ va chạm thiên thạch có thể chỉ khiến cho họa diệt chủng thêm tồi tệ chứ không phải là nguyên nhân gây ra thảm họa này” – bà Keller cho biết.


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