Sao Hỏa từng là “hành tinh xanh” giống Trái đất

Sao Hỏa từng là “hành tinh xanh” giống Trái đất

Hình ảnh sao Hỏa cổ xưa được dựng lại từ các bằng chứng mới nhất là một hành tinh được bao phủ phần lớn bởi đại dương mênh mông, giống như Trái đất của chúng ta.

Đáng tiếc, cảnh quan tuyệt đẹp, khí hậu ấm và ẩm để có thể duy trì sự sống đã biến mất khỏi hành tinh này, giống như các hành tinh chết dần trong phim khoa học viễn tưởng.

Sao Hỏa từng là “hành tinh xanh” giống Trái đất

Sao Hỏa hiện tại và 3,5 tỉ năm trước – (ảnh đồ họa của Jon Wade).

Các bằng chứng mới cho thấy đến một giai đoạn nào đó, lớp vỏ bazan hiện thời của sao Hỏa được hình thành bởi dung nham lan tràn khắp hành tinh. Chúng đã hút cạn các đại dương như những miếng bọt biển khổng lồ.

Đó là lý do con người đã nhiều lần tìm thấy vết tích của nước trên sao Hỏa nhưng nước thật sự thì không. Theo các tính toán, thời mà hành tinh này còn sở hữu các đại dương xinh đẹp là vào khoảng 3,5 tỉ năm trước.


Sao Hỏa khô cằn hiện tại và được bao phủ phần lớn bởi đại dương ngày xưa – (ảnh: Đại học Bắc Illinois).

Tiến sĩ Jon Wade – Khoa Khoa học trái đất thuộc Đại học Oxford (Anh), một trong những nhà khoa học tham gia nghiên cứu sao Hỏa – cho biết nhóm của ông đã sử dụng các phương pháp mô hình để đánh giá thành phần đá trên hành tinh này, tính toán có bao nhiêu nước đã bị hấp thụ. Các kết quả chỉ ra nước trên sao Hỏa đã chuyển hóa các phần tử trong nó thành các khoáng chất nằm lẫn trong lớp vỏ hành tinh.

Lý do thảm họa này xảy ra ở sao Hỏa, còn hành tinh của chúng ta thì thoát nạn là vì bầu khí quyển của sao Hỏa mỏng hơn và kích cỡ hành tinh cũng nhỏ hơn trái đất rất nhiều. Vì lẽ đó, nó khó gìn giữ được các đại dương trên bề mặt. Nhiệt độ luôn gia tăng trong lõi Trái đất cũng ngăn chặn nước phản ứng với các khoáng chất trong lớp vỏ và có thể tồn tại trên bề mặt.


Một robot thăm dò của NASA – (ảnh: NASA).

Tuy nhiên, các nhà khoa học cũng đã tìm ra bằng chứng cho thấy một khu vực trên sao Hỏa có tồn tại nguồn nước ngầm tương đương hồ Superior ở Bắc Mỹ (rộng 80.000km2). Họ hy vọng các thiết bị tối tân của NASA có thể tìm ra nó để phục vụ cho các chuyến du hành sao Hỏa sau này.

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