Anubis – Vị thần đầu chó quản cõi chết của người Ai Cập cổ đại

Anubis – Vị thần đầu chó quản cõi chết của người Ai Cập cổ đại


Thần đầu chó Anubis là một trong những vị thần nổi tiếng và bí ẩn nhất của Ai Cập cổ đại với nhiều truyền thuyết tâm linh liên quan đến ông.

Thần đầu chó Anubis được biết đến từ những giai đoạn sớm nhất trong lịch sử của nền văn minh lưu vực sông Nile.

Vị thần này lần đầu tiên được nhắc tới vào Thời kỳ Triều đại đầu tiên, nhưng có thể nghiên cứu sắp tới sẽ cho thấy ông thậm chí đã xuất hiện từ trước thời gian đó. Tuy nhiên có một điều thú vị khi biết rằng cái tên “Anubis” chưa từng được biết tới cho đến khi người Hy Lạp đến Ai Cập. Trong ngôn ngữ Ai Cập cổ đại, ông được gọi là Anpu hay Inpu. Cái tên này có cùng gốc với một từ có nghĩa là “đứa trẻ hoàng gia”. Ngoài ra, nó cũng liên quan đến từ “inp”, có nghĩa là “phân hủy”. Anubis cũng được biết đến là “Imy-ut” (“là người có mặt tại nơi ướp xác”) và “nub-tA-djser” (“chúa tể của vùng đất linh thiêng”).

Anubis – Vị thần đầu chó quản cõi chết của người Ai Cập cổ đại
Anubis tham gia vào quá trình ướp xác người chết. (Public Domain).

Một vị Thần không có đền thờ

Cho đến nay, các nhà khảo cổ chưa từng khai quật được đền thờ to lớn nào dành riêng cho vị thần này. “Đền thờ” của ông là các hầm mộ và nghĩa trang. Những trung tâm chính thờ cúng ông nằm ở Asyut (Lycopolis) và Hardai (Cynopolis). Tên của ông xuất hiện trong những lăng mộ mastaba (ngôi mộ bằng gạch bùn) đồ sộ và cổ kính trong Triều đại Đầu tiên và người ta đã tìm thấy một số đền thờ vị thần này. Chẳng hạn như một ngôi đền và một nghĩa trang xác ướp chó và chó rừng đã được phát hiện tại Anubeion, một địa điểm nằm ở phía đông Saqqara. Dường như dưới thời trị vì của các triều đại đầu tiên, Anubis còn quan trọng hơn cả thần Osiris. Điều này đã thay đổi trong giai đoạn Trung Vương quốc, nhưng Anubis vẫn tiếp tục là một trong những vị thần quan trọng nhất.

Anubis là một trong những vị thần có thể làm những việc chống lại con người. Ông tương đối độc lập, đôi khi giúp đỡ nhưng đôi khi cũng trừng phạt con người. Một trong những vai chính của ông là ”Người giám hộ cân tim”. Điều này liên quan đến niềm tin rằng sau cái chết, con người sẽ được gặp các vị thần và được họ đặt trái tim lên một chiếc cân đặc biệt. Những cảnh cân trọng lượng tim trong lễ cân tim trong Cuốn sách của người chết (Book of the Dead) có sự hiện diện của Anubis – vị thần đảm trách việc cân và quyết định xem người đó có xứng đáng được sống bất tử hay không. Chính vì vậy, Anubis có thể quyết định số phận của linh hồn.

Ks0sOR0
Vị thần Ai Cập Anubis (chuyển thể hiện đại lấy cảm hứng từ những bức tranh trong ngôi mộ thời kỳ Trung vương quốc) (GFDL).

Vị thần Anubis thường được mô tả là một con chó rừng, đôi khi lại là một người đàn ông có màu đen, màu sắc liên tưởng đến sự cô độc và tái sinh. Anubis có một bản sao nữ giới là Anput, và một con gái là thần rắn Kebechet. Ông cũng có liên quan đến thần Upuaut (Wepwawet), một vị thần khác mang các đặc điểm của loài chó.

Anubis cũng là người bảo trợ cho những linh hồn lạc lối, bao gồm cả trẻ em mồ côi. Trong thời kỳ Hy Lạp, ông gắn liền với thần Hermes. Người Hy Lạp đã tạo ra một vị thần hỗn hợp gọi là thần Hermanubis. Họ quyết định kết hợp Hermes như một sứ giả của các vị thần với Anubis, vị thần chỉ lối cho người chết đến với các vị thần. Theo thời gian, trong con mắt của người La Mã Hermanubis thành ra có liên quan đến Herpokrates – một vị thần phổ biến của các nhà giả kim thuật và các nhà triết học trong thời kỳ Phục Hưng.

NVTTSAG
Tượng Hermanubis, một vị thần lai giữa Anubis và thần Hy Lạp Hermes (Bảo Tàng Vatican) (CC BY-SA 3.0).

Cho đến nay, điện thờ nổi tiếng nhất của Anubis từng được tìm thấy là trong ngôi mộ của Tutankhamun (KV62). Hiện nó nằm trong Bảo tàng Ai Cập ở Cairo (JE61444). Nó được tìm thấy phía sau lối vào không có vách ngăn và dẫn đến ”phòng lưu trữ”.Ngôi đền nằm gần chiếc hòm kín có chứa những chiếc bình bên trong.

Giám hộ người chết

Vai trò chính của Anubis là ướp xác, hướng dẫn cho các linh hồn, và bảo vệ ngôi mộ. Theo huyền thoại về Osiris, ông đã giúp Isis ướp xác chồng bà. Theo câu chuyện này, những thầy tu làm việc trong quá trình ướp xác phải đeo mặt nạ mặt chó rừng. Hơn nữa, truyền thuyết kể rằng khi Osiris bị Set giết, các cơ quan nội tạng của ông đã trở thành quà tặng cho Anubis. Điều này khởi nguồn cho truyền thống dâng tặng một số bộ phận của người chết cho ông. Chó rừng thật thường đào xác chết ra khỏi những ngôi mộ nông để ăn xác. Vì vậy người Ai Cập cổ đại đã làm cho Anubis thành người bảo vệ cho nghĩa trang và là vị thần ướp xác để biến lực lượng tiêu cực thành lực lượng tích cực.

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Tượng Anubis. (CC BY 2.0).

Theo Geraldine Pinch: “Anubis là người giám hộ của tất cả những bí ẩn phép thuật. Trong Papyrus Jumilhac, ông xuất hiện như một người lãnh đạo lực lượng vũ trang Horus. Sự tàn bạo của ông phù hợp với sự bạo ngược của Seth. Trong các văn bản phép thuật ở thời kỳ tương tự, Anubis được đặt tên là “Chúa tể của Bau”. Toàn bộ tiểu đoàn quỷ sứ đều dưới sự chỉ huy của ông. Trong cuộn giấy phép thuật thời La Mã, Anubis đóng vai trò như lực lượng chính gây ra những tai họa. Các vị thần từ bi trong những ngôi đền thờ hiếm khi có thể nhận diện được trong số các nam thần và nữ thần tàn bạo mà họ đụng độ trong phép thuật hàng ngày. (…) Một câu chuyện trong Papyrus Jumilhac (khoảng năm 300 TCN) giải thích thông lệ bằng cách liên hệ việc Seth đã một lần tự biến mình thành con báo như thế nào sau khi tấn công cơ thể của Osiris. Anubis đã bắt và đặt tên cho con báo, tạo ra những đốm trên mình con báo. Vị thần chó rừng ra lệnh da báo nên được các linh mục khoác lên người để tưởng nhớ về chiến thắng trước Seth”.

YaFSuoi
Papyrus Jumilhac. (CC BY-SA 3.0).

Trong nhiều thế kỷ, người ta tin rằng những kẻ cướp mộ sẽ bị trừng phạt bởi Anubis bởi ông là người giám hộ của người chết. Hơn nữa, người ta tin rằng những người tốt cũng sẽ được ông bảo vệ và sự sống vĩnh cửu của họ sẽ được bình an và hạnh phúc dưới sự chăm sóc của ông.
Ngày càng ý thức hơn về thần đầu chó

Anubis nhận được nhiều quyền năng và thuộc tính hơn từ nền văn hóa đại chúng ngày nay. Vị thần bí ẩn đã trở thành một nhân vật nổi tiếng trong những cuốn sách, trò chơi điện tử và những bộ phim trong suốt thế kỷ 20 và những năm đầu của thế kỷ 21. Các nghệ sĩ hiện đại thường tưởng tượng về quyền năng của Anubis như một thứ gì đó nham hiểm hơn những gì người Ai Cập cổ đại đã làm. Danh tiếng xấu của Anubis đã được tạo ra từ nỗi sợ hãi và giá trị giải trí hiện đại.

Trong quá khứ, người ta tin rằng con người không có sự lựa chọn cho số phận của họ, nhưng họ có hy vọng rằng vị thần chó rừng sẽ cho phép họ đi vào thế giới bên kia và tận hưởng nó mãi mãi.


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