Các giai đoạn biến đổi của cơ thể người sau khi chết

Các giai đoạn biến đổi của cơ thể người sau khi chết


Sau khi chết, cơ thể người sẽ trải qua nhiều giai đoạn biến đổi như mềm nhão, co cứng, nguội lạnh và tụ máu.


Để xác nhận một người đã chết, các bác sĩ phải dựa trên nhiều triệu chứng kết hợp, theo International Business Times. Đầu tiên, người qua đời không có những dấu hiệu rõ ràng của sự sống như hít thở hoặc phản ứng trước các kích thích bằng lời nói hay cơn đau. Đồng tử mắt của người đó sẽ không chuyển động và bị giãn ra, theo bác sĩ Lisa Anderson ở trang Doctify.

Cơ thể người có nhiều biến đổi sau khi chết. (Ảnh minh họa: List).

Chỉ một trong những yếu tố trên không đủ để quyết định một người đã chết. Đôi khi, một người có thể rơi vào trạng thái vẫn sống xét về mặt lý thuyết nhưng gần như không có khả năng trở về trạng thái đầy đủ nhận thức.

“Những thay đổi xảy ra sau khi chết dễ phân loại nhất dựa theo khung thời gian trong vòng một tiếng, hai tiếng và 6 tiếng, 7 đến 12 tiếng và trên 12 tiếng”, Anderson giải thích. “Giai đoạn co cứng tử thi (rigor mortis) diễn ra khoảng ba tiếng sau khi tử vong, nhưng độ cứng chỉ đạt tới mức cực đại 12 tiếng sau. Nơi bị co cứng đầu tiên là mặt, sau đó lan ra khắp thi thể”.

“Ở thời điểm vừa qua đời, mọi cơ bắp trong cơ thể đều thả lỏng, gọi là giai đoạn mềm nhão sơ cấp (primary flaccidity)”, Anderson nói. Lúc này, phần hàm có thể há to và mi mắt lật mở được. Lớp da có thể sệ xuống và các khớp trở nên linh hoạt.

Khi trái tim ngừng đập, mạch máu ngừng lưu thông, khiến lớp da trở nên nhợt nhạt. Nhiệt độ cơ thể giảm xuống 2 độ C trong giờ đầu tiên và sau đó là 1 độ C trong quá trình mang tên mát lạnh tử thi (algor mortis).

“Giai đoạn tiếp theo là vết bầm tử thi (liver mortis). Một số nơi trên cơ thể có thể xuất hiện màu tím bầm. Sau khi co cứng hết cỡ, các cơ bắp lại dần dần thả lỏng do những biến đổi hóa học xảy ra, dẫn đến trạng thái gọi là mềm nhão thứ cấp (secondary flaccidity)”, Anderson chia sẻ.

“Cái chết là chủ đề kiêng kỵ và rất khó nói đối với phần lớn mọi người vì nhiều lý do như muốn phủ nhận, lo sợ, không muốn người khác buồn. Có nhiều sáng kiến khuyến khích bệnh nhân và gia đình bàn bạc trước, lên kế hoạch về cách thức cũng như nơi họ muốn qua đời, để mọi ước nguyện có thể được thực hiện, để họ ra đi thanh thản và mang lại ít buồn thương nhất cho những người xung quanh”, Anderson nhấn mạnh


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