Người Anh cổ bị thay 90% gene 4.500 năm trước

Người Anh cổ bị thay 90% gene 4.500 năm trước


Tộc người gốc từ Anatolia sống ở các đảo Anh 6.000 năm trước bị thay thế gần như toàn bộ bởi một nhóm mới đến từ bình nguyên Đông Âu-Trung Á 1.500 năm sau. Nghiên cứu di truyền vừa công bố ngày 23/2 trên tạp chí Nature về nhóm dân cổ đại sống ở Anh 6 thiên niên kỷ trước cho thấy tới 95% gene của họ thay thế bởi một làn sóng nhập cư của người Beaker.

Nhóm cổ nhất ở thời kỳ Đồ đá, được cho là xây dựng lên các công trình như Stonehenge đã để lại chỉ 10% gene trong cư dân sống ở các đảo Anh. Nhóm dân mới, đến từ thảo nguyên từ vùng nay thuộc Ukraine tới Kazachstan, đã sang Anh 4.500 năm trước và lan ra chiếm lĩnh gần như toàn bộ các hòn đảo.

Công trình của nhóm nghiên cứu di truyền do giáo sư David Reich từ Trường Y khoa Harvard ở Cambridge, Massachussetts, chủ trì cho thấy tới 90% gene của người Anh cổ đại bị thay thế chỉ trong vòng vài trăm năm.

Người Anh cổ bị thay 90% gene 4.500 năm trước

Nền văn hóa từ Đông Âu đem tới đảo Anh chừng 4.500 năm trước các bình gốm và đất nung gọi là “beaker” cùng nghề rèn. (Ảnh: Getty).

Từ đồ đá sang đồ đồng

Nhóm người cổ đại ở Anh (Ancient Britons) đến từ vùng nay thuộc Anatolia, Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và đem đến văn hóa cự thạch, xây các công trình lớn bằng đá. Nền văn hóa của họ là săn bắn và hái lượm.

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Stonehenge ở Wiltshire là công trình kiến trúc cổ nổi tiếng nhất của tộc người có cổ đại thời kỳ Đồ đá ở Anh. Ảnh: AFP).

Những công trình tại Stonehenge, khu dân cư có thành bằng đất ở Skara Brae, Orkneys, là dấu tích của nhóm dân này. Trong khoảng hơn 1.000 năm, các nhóm dân này sống tách biệt khỏi lục địa châu Âu cho đến khi nhóm Beaker tràn sang.

Người Beaker, với tên gọi lấy từ các bình đất nung (beaker vessel) có họa tiết bên ngoài tạo ra nền văn hóa và cách chôn cất người chết kiểu khác. Các tù trưởng bộ lạc được họ chôn trong mộ đất đắp cao.

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Ở Skara Brae, Orkneys thuộc Scotland còn có di chỉ của người cổ đại. (Ảnh: Reuters).

Nhóm này cũng tràn ra khắp châu Âu và mang đến các đảo Anh lối sống nông nghiệp tuy còn thô sơ. Họ đã tạo ra nhiều đồ vật bằng đồng, dụng cụ nấu ăn và chứa thực phẩm bằng đất nung.

Họ cũng để lại mũi tên, vòng tay bằng đá và các khuy áo có họa tiết đặc trưng. Người Beaker bắt đầu biết nghề rèn. Nét văn hóa gọi là truyền thống Beaker xuất hiện ở bán đảo Iberia chừng 5.000 năm trước, sau đó truyền ngược trở lại Trung Âu và lan tỏa đi khắp nơi.

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Một di chỉ đá tại Avebury, Anh, với các công trình mà người ta tin là đã được dựng lên 2.600 năm trước Công nguyên. (Ảnh: Getty)

Một số báo Anh cho rằng sau chừng 1.000 năm “Brexit” thời Đồ đá, các cư dân mới từ Đông Âu sang đã thay đổi toàn bộ cấu trúc dân số các đảo Anh.


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